Asthma - an allergic disease characterized by recurrent bronchial obstruction, and has at its core hyperreactivity, the occurrence of which is associated with exposure to allergens and nonspecific stimuli. Suffering from bronchial asthma 1-5% of children.
During asthma in children distinguish two phases - the aggravation and remission. In the acute phase can distinguish predpristupny, paroxysmal and postpristupny periods. Predpristupny period characterized by the occurrence of allergic rhinitis (nasal congestion, sneezing, paroxysmal cough).
In a fit, there are signs emerging acute bronchial obstruction, the appearance of expiratory dyspnea, accompanied by noisy breathing. On examination revealed a box of percussion sound and color a lot of wheezing. During an attack of shortness of serdtsebie notes, high blood pressure. On the X-ray light show greater transparency of lung tissue and increased pulmonary drawing.
Asthma attacks are the following types:
In a severe attack of asthma is characterized by adherence signs of respiratory failure in an asthmatic background of marked dyspnea in the form of cyanosis nasolabial triangle, wings, nose, ears and fingertips.
Bronchial asthma in children can go into asthmatic condition. Signs of the latter are long-term (more than 8-12 hours) bronchial obstruction, resistance to the bronchodilatory drugs.
The causes of the asthmatic condition most often are:
solid contact with allergens
addition of bronchopulmonary infection
a sharp increase in air pollution by chemicals
delayed and inadequate therapy.
In the first stage there is respiratory failure, in the second stage joins cardiovascular collapse, falling blood pressure. The third stage is characterized by the development of asphyxia with loss of consciousness, seizures, and decrease the appearance of cardiac activity.
Bronchial asthma is characterized by a mild bit of trouble breathing, brief, no more than 1-2 times per month. In the course of moderately characterized by a more frequent asthma attacks (more than 2 times per week).
Bronchial asthma is characterized by a severe course of frequent, persistent, and dangerous to the life of the patient relapses.
Treatment of asthma:
Eliminating allergens from the child's environment (dry cleaning, ventilation, diet, etc.) In mild attack of prescribed inhaled dose of aerosol medication expands bronchial tubes (berotek, salbutamol, terbutaline). In the absence of the effect of aminophylline join. When a severe attack than inhaled glucocorticosteroids administered by injection. Reduce the frequency of exacerbations of asthma contributes to anti-inflammatory therapy.