In most surgical procedures are removal of pathologically changed organs or tissues. Ideas to replace diseased organs and tissues appeared doctors several centuries ago.
Operations associated with transplant tissue from one body part to another in order to replace the defect and restore the lost functions within the purview of reconstructive surgery. The main objective of such interventions is the renewal form and function.
Depending on the type of transplanted tissue are distinguished: skin, muscle, bone, nerve, vascular plasticity.
Depending on the source of donor tissue is isolated:
autoplasty when the source of the graft is the patient himself;
homoplasty when the donor is another person;
geteroplastiku if the graft is taken from an individual of another species, for example, transplanted from animal to man;
transplantation of artificial organs and tissues.
A variety of techniques developed skin plasty can widely apply them in various fields of surgery. For replacement of skin defects of skin flaps are used, sometimes parts of the mucosa.
Transplantation of adipose tissue is mainly used in plastic surgery for filling cosmetic defects on the face, in the orbit after removal of the eye, and so on adipose tissue retains its properties for a long time.
Found its place in surgery and transplantation of fascia. They are used to replace tissue defects of the meninges, the hernia, to fix the dropping out of the rectum, the mobile kidney, as well as surgical interventions in orthopedics. Fascia to adapt to new conditions, have high strength and elasticity, good stamina. The human body has a sufficient amount of fascia.
Recently, its spread was transplanted tendons. Transplanted tendon recovers from their external parts.
Vascular transplants became possible only after the technical development of the vascular suture. Used in various defects of large arteries and veins.
Transplantation of cartilage has a positive effect only if, when the cartilage is transferred together with the perichondrium, making a more rapid recovery of cartilage tissue. This technique is used to correct the defects of the nose, throat, etc., are the material parts of cartilaginous rib or ear.
However, in a subsequent part of the graft loses its function due to chronic rejection. It is known that the cause of graft rejection are antigenic differences in donor and recipient tissue. In addition to the degree of foreignness on the strength of the immune response affect the period, the dose and duration of contact with a foreign object. These mechanisms developed during evolution in response to changing conditions of life in the process of natural selection. The key to successful transplantation of any organ is a "peaceful" coexistence in a whole organism genetically different tissues.
Problems of transplantation are very broad. Development of transplantation is indisputable evidence of its constant quality growth, the ever-increasing process of accumulation of scientific knowledge about the progressive development of this science.