» Development of diseases associated with obesity
Development of diseases associated with obesity
Development of diseases associated with obesity
Factors influencing the risk of diseases associated with obesity
The higher the BMI, the higher the risk of obesity-associated diseases and premature death. But there are other factors that may influence this relationship:
distribution of body fat
significant increase in body weight at a young age
level of physical development
Distribution of adipose tissue in the body
50 years ago, it was found that the distribution of body fat affects health, but until the early 1980s, this fact is not taken into account. Found that people who have the phenotype with a predominant accumulation of fat in the abdomen (subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue) have a higher risk of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or coronary heart disease than those who have the fat accumulation in the buttocks and hips. Direct detection of the presence of fat in the abdomen and internal organs (so-called abdominal type of obesity) requires the use of expensive radiology (imaging) techniques.
So often used in practice simplified method of measuring waist circumference, which quite accurately reflects the amount of fat in the abdominal area. Expert Committee on the identification, assessment and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults, convened by the National Institute of Health, USA, made recommendations, according to which we must assume that men with waist circumference of more than 102 cm and women with a waist circumference over 88 cm (35 inches ) are at high risk of metabolic diseases. These recommendations are based on the major epidemiological studies and studies devoted to the study of metabolism, set certain limits within which realize the relationship between the numerical value of waist circumference and risk of metabolic disorders.
The increase in body weight at a young age
Excess body weight at a young age is an additional risk factor for disease. The data obtained in epidemiological studies have shown that with increasing body weight by 5 kg or more between the ages of 18-20 years increases the risk of gallstones, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease in both men and women. Moreover, the presence of overweight in this age increases the risk of premature death. Even in lean people in middle age increased the risk of these diseases at a young age if they were overweight (over 5kg).
It is established that aerobic exercise affect the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease in obese people. In a large epidemiological study Blair et al. found that, despite the presence of obesity, have physically developed, trained individuals (which is an increase in oxygen consumption of tissues during exercise) reduced incidence of diabetes and mortality from cardiovascular disease, compared with untrained men. Ethnicity
BMI values framework within which the relationship is realized with the emergence of certain diseases may vary depending on the ethnicity of the individual. Thus, the same values of BMI face South Asian ethnicity are at higher risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease than whites. At the same time, the same values of BMI Polynesians compared with white people have a more pronounced muscle mass with less development of adipose tissue.
The prevalence of obesity
Over the past 20 years the prevalence of obesity has increased significantly in both developed and developing countries. According to experts, the world's adult population over 500 million people is overweight and 250 million are obese. Moreover, the prevalence of obesity continues to this day. In the U.S., almost 61% (110 million) of adults aged 20 to 74 years is overweight or obese. In Russia, overweight have about 40% of the population. Since the 1980s, there is especially rapid growth in the number of people with excess weight. Moreover, with increasing age from 20 to 50 years, the number of obese people is growing, and in the age group 60 to 70 years, bucking the trend.
In the UK, Europe and obese nearly 15% of men and 20% of women. In South Asia, Japan and China, the number of obese people is high enough, and in developing Malaysia's more of them than having a shortage of supply. In Samoa, 60% men and 75% of women are obese. This pathology is widely distributed among children and adolescents. NHANES III data showed that 10% to 15% of children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) in the U.S. are overweight. These figures demonstrate the increasing prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents almost doubled compared with previous studies. In addition, the diseases caused by obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease and non-alcoholic fatty steatosis, which previously have been observed mainly in adults, now with a high frequency encountered in childhood. Moreover, obesity in young people contributes to the appearance of obesity and the development of related diseases in adulthood.