Congested optic disk - are seen from the fundus. It is a papilledema noninflammatory nature. Most often this is not a disease but a sign of increased intracranial pressure.
The causes of increased intracranial pressure are:
tumors in the cranial cavity
inflammation of the brain and its membranes
traumatic brain injury
changes in skull
leading to a decrease in the cranial cavity.
By the swelling of the optic nerve to form nerve congestive disk can cause:
diseases of the blood
You may experience nipple edema of the optic nerve trauma orbit, eye, diseases of the eye, accompanied by a decrease in intraocular pressure. Congestive optic disc occurs when the breach outflow from the interstitial fluid of the optic nerve, located in the orbit. The normal flow of this fluid is carried into the cranial cavity. By reducing the intraocular pressure, fluid retention may occur due to lack of pressure on the optic nerve in the eye cavity.
Status of visual function in stagnation in the optic nerve head for a long time is not violated. Only with the continued existence of stagnation due to the increasing pressure on the optic nerve fibers begins atrophic process in which nerve tissue is gradually replaced by connective tissue with irreversible loss of its function.
Distinguish the following stages of congestive optic disc.
The initial stage of starting or congestive optic disc - it's swelling edges of the disk. On the back of the eye are blurred boundaries disc, starting with its top edge. The disc is moderately reddened.
The next stage is marked congestion of the optic nerve. In this case the whole disk swells, a depression in its center, which exists in the norm disappears, and the disc protrudes into the vitreous. Redness of the drive increases, becomes cyanotic hue, blood vessels dilate in the fundus (especially veins), creates a picture, when the vessels as would climb to the bulging disc to the optic nerve is sometimes observed petechial hemorrhages around the disc edema. The function of this stage is preserved. Preservation of visual function when expressed changes in the fundus called "the first scissors stagnation." Patient may disturb only headaches. Sometimes there are no complaints at all. The first two stages of swelling of the optic nerve when removing the causes of stagnation (cure the underlying disease), swelling of the optic nerve gradually reduced and the boundaries of the optic disc are restored.
The next stage of congestion of the optic nerve is called - pronounced congestive optic disc. The surface of the optic disc protrudes more into the vitreous, there is a lot of bleeding lesions in the disk and the retina. The retina swells. At this stage begins compression of the nerve fibers of the optic nerve. Fibers and die in their place connective tissue.
There is atrophy of the optic nerve, which is called secondary. Disk sizes at the same time decrease, it decreases swelling, vein narrowing, hemorrhage gradually absorbed. This stage is called - being stagnant disk atrophy or "second pair of scissors stagnation." State the opposite occurs - the fundus picture of improvement, and the function of sharply reduced.
With continued exposure causes stagnation and atrophy of the optic nerve becomes complete, and the function of permanently lost.
Treatment of congestive optic disc.
Cure congestive optic disc is not possible without addressing its causes. Therefore, treat the underlying disease, and nerve supply to maintain prescribed sosudoreguliruyuschie (cavinton, trental, Sermion), drugs, food Increasing Agent nervous system (Actovegin, diavitol, meksidol, nootropics).