Atherosclerosis - is almost the most common disease of our time. It is the foundation of most cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, circulatory problems of extremities, the abdominal cavity.
Atherosclerosis - a chronic, focal lesion of the arteries, characterized by the deposition and accumulation in the inner membrane protein and fat-containing vessel delivered to their cholesterol levels, accompanied by the growth of connective tissue and the formation of the so-called atherosclerotic plaques, which narrow the lumen of the artery and cause chronic slow growing lack of blood supply to the organ. Also available acute blockage (occlusion), lumen or thrombus or atheromatous plaque contents disintegrated.
In the initial stages of the disease is extremely difficult to detect atherosclerosis. Previously it was thought that the disease is atherosclerosis of the elderly. However, in our time, this disease has taken epidemic proportions and embraced almost the whole population of developed countries. Atherosclerosis is increasingly affecting younger people. Atherosclerotic plaques are found even in the blood vessels in young children. Among older people the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is 100%.
Mechanism of atherosclerosis. Is a common scheme of development of atherosclerosis, which consists of consecutive stages.
Lipid (fat) stain. In order to be able to fat deposited in the arterial wall, needs certain conditions are met: microdamage artery walls, slowing blood flow in this place. Most often this occurs in areas of branching vessels. Choroid swells, loosened. Duration of this stage is different. The enzymes dissolve the lipids of the vascular wall and protect its integrity. These lipid patches are only visible under a microscope and find them even in infants. With the depletion of protective mechanisms in these places there are complex compounds composed of proteins and fats, cholesterol, is a complex interaction with the fat cells of the choroid, blood cells and results in the deposition of fat in the vessel wall.
Then, in the areas of fat deposits growing young connective tissue, is liposkleroz. Gradually the atherosclerotic plaque is formed, consisting of fat, connective tissue fibers. These plaques and more liquid can be dissolved. However, they are also dangerous. They are often torn loose cover and ulcerate. Fragments of it can come off and cause blockage of the lumen of the arteries. Vascular wall by atherosclerotic plaque loses its elasticity. It may be hemorrhage, fracture, which causes blood clots - blood clots. This in turn is also a source of danger.
Further, over time, the plaque is sealed, there is deposition of calcium salts in it. There is a final stage of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques aterokaltsinoz. This plaque can be stable or rise slowly causing gradual deterioration of blood supply.
However, not all that easy. So far, not been studied in all the stages and causes of atherosclerosis. The above mechanism is disputed. There are many theories of the causes and development of the disease. We discuss the infectious theory of atherosclerosis. From time to blame the disease known viruses (cytomegalovirus, herpes virus), we study the relation of atherosclerosis with lesions of human chlamydial infection. An important role played by genetic predisposition. Identified genetic disease with a constant high level of cholesterol in the blood. Mutagenic proposed a theory according to which the first is a mutation of one of the cells of the muscular layer of the vascular wall. However, none of the theories to date has not been confirmed nor disproved.
The diagnosis of atherosclerosis is made by detection of atherosclerotic vascular disease and identify high blood cholesterol, increasing the amount of fat - precursors of cholesterol - triglycerides, an imbalance of protein fractions, which transport fats and cholesterol.
Atherosclerosis can affect different arteries. If it affects the arteries of the heart (coronary arteries) occurs coronary heart disease (CHD), angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure. With the defeat of the brain - stroke, dementia (dementia), vascular parkinsonism. Vascular lesions of the lower extremities accompanied by pain in the legs syndrome "intermittent claudication", trophic disorders, gangrene.
Given the fact that atherosclerosis can only be suspended, it is important to pay attention to the prevention and timely treatment of disease.