Before we talk about high blood pressure, you should find out what the blood pressure. Blood pressure (often abbreviated as AD) - the total pressure is the pressure in the arteries. And it must make a reservation that the pressure in different arteries can be different. It is higher, closer to the heart artery is located and the wider the diameter. For example, the highest blood pressure in our aorta - the main and largest artery, which comes from the heart, namely, of his left ventricle. Many people know the normal numbers of blood pressure - 120/80 mmHg This figure indicates how much pressure you have in the brachial artery. This indicator is used as a basis, because the pressure on the brachial artery to measure the easiest way, using a special device - sphygmomanometer, or as it is called in a medical environment - a tonometer.
What is included blood pressure
As you can see, the numbers of blood pressure are a fraction. You may have even heard that the first of them - the so-called "top" pressure, and the second - "bottom". And someone may even have heard from doctors that the upper pressure - is the "heart" and the bottom - "kidney." In principle, it is true. Let's find out why. The top pressure (120 mmHg) is responsible for the heart, for how hard it pushes blood into the arteries. It is usually assumed that the more often the heart beats, the higher the pressure in the arteries. Although it is not always the case, for example, when state of shock, when blood pressure is sharply reduced, the heart begins to beat faster, which is a compensatory response. But with hypertension heart rate is usually increased.
Lower blood pressure is responsible for the tone of blood vessels. The wall of blood vessels have three layers: the endothelium (inner), muscular and adventitia (outer). Vascular tone is provided by the muscle membrane. If it was not, then lower the pressure we would have virtually zero. On vascular tone typically affects the kidneys. And if a person has any renal pathology, especially affecting the so-called juxtaglomerular apparatus, with the result that stands out from it in larger amounts of renin, the pressure increases. Renin - a biologically active substance that increases muscle tone in the artery walls and, consequently, increases blood pressure. Looking ahead, we say that a large group of drugs for the treatment of hypertension is working on the principle of blocking the synthesis of an enzyme that is responsible for the production of renin - angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
Some people may experience blood pressure a few more than 120/80. Everyone needs to know its working pressure. The working pressure is usually called the pressure that occurs in a given individual is normal. It may be somewhat higher than the standard number 120/80 or lower. It is very important to consider when PNDS crises.
Normal blood pressure
As we have said, it is important to know your business, that is the normal pressure. It is believed that the maximum pressure numbers are 140/90 mm Hg This means that if a person in a healthy condition in the absence of any complaints about the health of blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg, then it is the norm. Some people are normal pressure may be lower than 100, for example, 90/60 mm Hg
It should be noted that blood pressure is influenced by many factors, and in this case we are not referring to the disease, and environmental factors. For example, in the sweltering hot weather can decrease blood pressure, which is associated with a reflex vasodilatation in order to better heat transfer, as well as the loss of fluid in the body during sweating.
In heavy physical work or stress can increase blood pressure, which is associated with heart palpitations. Another effect, which affects blood pressure - is orthostatic effect. It is celebrated with a sharp rising from horizontal to vertical. In this case, the heart and vascular tone are not rapidly adapt to new conditions, and the pressure is low. So sometimes in these cases, a person may experience a blackout or a goose. In patients with heart disease, this effect is even stronger.
As blood pressure is regulated
Our blood pressure is regulated by the nervous system and hormonal mechanisms. During the day, the pressure can vary significantly. Normally during sleep is lower, and during wakefulness or stress - increases. The emotional state is also strongly affects blood pressure. Emotions lead to the release into the blood of the stress hormone - adrenaline, which is produced by the adrenal glands. As a result, the heart beats harder and more often, and the pressure in the vessels increases. In addition, the pressure affects the adrenal glands and other hormone - cortisol. This hormone, in contrast to adrenaline, is the "anti-stress", but it also affects blood pressure.
Can there be a different blood pressure measurement in different hands
Yes, a difference of a few mmHg can take place, and it is not so important from a clinical point of view.
Blood pressure is expressed as two numbers: systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The first one shows the force with which the heart drives the blood from the left ventricle into vessels, and the second points to the vascular tone, which is typical for them to heart in diastole (when the heart does not contract).
Usually the difference between the pressure on the left and right hand can be 5 mm Hg and it is considered the norm. However, the difference between systolic pressure by 20 mm Hg or diastolic 10 mm Hg suggests that there is a narrowing of the artery that goes to the left or right hand.
In order to determine the pressure difference on the left and right hand, your doctor may carry out the measurement of blood pressure several times on each hand. In addition, it is possible to measure on both hands simultaneously.