The auricle is situated between the temporomandibular joints, front and rear mastoid. The skeleton of the shell is elastic cartilage thickness of 0.5-1 mm, coated on both sides of the perichondrium and skin. The auricle is attached ligaments and muscles to the scales of the temporal bone, mastoid and zygomatic process, and muscle sinks in humans are rudimentary. External auditory canal consists of 2 parts: the outer hyaline cartilage, and the inner - the bone. The outer section is 2 \ 3 of the entire length of the ear canal.
Anomalies of the pinna are relatively rare. All strains may be pinnae divided into two groups:
acquired as a result of trauma.
Congenital malformations are defined by the ear shortly after birth because of cosmetic flaws
excessive quantities (makrotiya)
reduced-size ear (microtia)
distance from the head (with spreading auricles).
These defects can be corrected surgically. When protruding ears in the field of BTE folds carved oval flap, stitching wounds in the ear attracted to the surface of the head. Makrotiya and phlegm can be eliminated through a series of plastic surgeries.
There are other ear deformities:
as a projection on the helix (tubercle of Darwin)
elongation of the shell side up, in the form of the tip (ear satire)
smoothing curls (ear macaque).
By the anomalies of the ear canal include congenital imperforate (atresia) of the outer ear canal. They may be accompanied by hypoplasia of the middle and inner ear of a lack of auditory ossicles, bone imperforate middle and inner ear. A number of patients is only membranous atresia, the cartilage of the ear canal. In such cases, resort to the creation of a plastic ear canal.
Congenital fistulas arising from the first branchial cleft gap, also refer to the anomalies of development, they are usually located above the tragus on the ascending part of the curl of the ear. Out the fistula can be allocated a yellow viscous liquid, it may suppurate and then the skin around the fistula is inflamed, from fistula aperture when pressed released festering secret. When plugging the hole fistula may have cysts.