The normal duration of sleep in different individuals varies greatly - from 4-5 hours to 10-12. That is, There are healthy and korotkospyaschie dolgospyaschie people. The main indicator of rates of sleep is a sense of relaxation after him. If not, then we can talk about the violation of sleep-wake cycle.
Abnormal increase in the duration of sleep (hypersomnia) may be at a number of diseases including endocrine, neurological, rheumatological. However, the most frequently hypersomnia occur as a manifestation of depression. The so-called seasonal depression, characterized by an increase in the duration of night sleep. Upon awakening, the person does not feel rested, and during the day worried about drowsiness, increased appetite for sweets. Hypersomnia can be combined with irritability, unreasonable anxiety, muscle pain, which also is characteristic of depression.
The shortening of sleep, or insomnia, hypersomnia occur more frequently. They can be of several types, depending on what segment of disrupted sleep:
falling asleep (insomnia presomnicheskaya)
period of sleep between them (intrasomnicheskaya).
All these types of insomnia can occur both in mental (neurosis, depression, drug addiction, alcoholism) and physical illnesses (endocrine, chronic liver disease and kidney disease, chronic pain syndromes, skin diseases, osteochondrosis).
Sleep disorders are usually associated with anxiety and increased emotional phenomena excitability. There is a desire to sleep disappears. as soon as the patients are in bed, having painful thoughts and memories, increasing physical activity and the desire to find a comfortable position. In existence during the day may increase itching or pain. Often formed by the fear associated with the onset of sleep, which becomes an obsessive character. If you sleep in a healthy person is in a few minutes (3-10 minutes), then it is delayed in patients up to 30-40 minutes, and sometimes more.
Intrasomnicheskie disorders manifest a sense of lack of depth of sleep, frequent awakenings and difficulty falling asleep after them. In the morning sleep seems to be insufficient, or may even arise a feeling Ponoi insomnia at night, even though objectively the amount of time during sleep can be 6-7 hours. Awakening in the middle of the night due to both external (primarily the sounds, the surface and disturbing his sleep) and internal factors (night terrors, autonomic changes in the form of respiratory failure, tachycardia, or urination during sleep). All of these factors can wake up and healthy people. however, in patients with insomnia is waking up a lot easier, and the process of falling asleep after waking up this episode is difficult.
Postsomnicheskie insomnia occur at an early awakening. As a rule, they are associated with appearing in the early morning hours of anxiety, and meet with nervousness and depression. Sleep does not make sense of relaxation and revival, despite the unmotivated anxiety, "sleepy" - that is, characterized by the inability to quickly engage in vigorous activity, apathy, and depressed mood.
Treatment of sleep disorders should be complex - a combination of exercise with aromatherapy, hypnotic, antidepressant, and antianxiety agents. Treated individually selected strictly in every case.