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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

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Wednesday, 20.09.2017, 10:32
Main » Gynecology » Mastopathy 
21:17
Mastopathy


Mastopathy

Mastopathy - benign breast disease, which manifests itself in the pathological proliferation of tissues - affects eight out of ten women. There is a disease on the background of hormonal imbalance in women. Breast disease has a significant impact on the health of many women, and in some cases leads to a terrible disease - breast cancer.


Breast begins with proliferation of connective tissue, with the formation of small nodules and bands of millet. This form of mastitis is called diffuse. Its main manifestation is mastalgiya - breast tenderness, which occurs before menstruation and subsides when it is the beginning, as well as the occasional ball-shaped seal in the upper chest. Women often ignore these symptoms for years without going to the doctor. And make a dangerous mistake, since it is at an early stage breast disease responds well to conservative treatment.

With further development of mastitis in the breast tissue formed dense units ranging in size from a pea to a walnut. This form of mastitis is called the HUB. Pain in the chest at the same time become more intense, may be given in the shoulder and armpit. Sometimes painful slightest touch to the chest. Of the nipple can be released colostrum, bloody or clear fluid. When the feeling the chest can be easily determined lobulation or grain tissues. At this stage of the disease and changes in cancer pain did not disappear with the onset of menses. There has not delay!

Breast disease - is dishormonal hyperplastic process in the mammary gland. In the terminology of the WHO, a fibro-cystic disease, which is accompanied by changes in tissue. Tissue or multiply very quickly, or changes in these regressive. In fact, the breast - is the result of an abnormal ratio of epithelial and connective tissues. As a rule, mastopathy sick women of childbearing age - from 25 to 45 years.

Occasionally, the disease affects both men, but these cases can be called isolated. In the U.S., for example, in the year of about 850-900 men sick.

The determining cause of mastitis - neuro-humoral factor. The prefix "neuro" means that the triggers of the disease may work in diseases of the nervous system - stress, depression and neurosis. The words "humoral factor" point to the internal environment, whose state is determined by the work of biologically active substances such as hormones.

The menstrual cycle is regulated by two types of reproductive (steroid) hormones produced by the ovary: the first day until the middle of the cycle produces a hormone called estrogen, and since the mid-cycle when ovulation occurs - gestagens (progesterone), whose level in the body reaches a maximum before menstruation.

In addition, the mammary gland is constantly affected by hormones, adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands, which are under the control of the cerebral cortex. Thus, the rate under the action of hormones in the breast are made monthly cyclic changes in the form of engorgement before menstruation and the involution (the return of) engorgement in the postmenstrual period.


If under the influence of some adverse factors hormonal balance is disturbed, the development of under-or, conversely, excessive amounts of hormone provokes abnormal proliferation of ducts, connective (fibrous) and glandular breast tissue. At the same time sealing in the mammary gland, characteristic of the premenstrual period, maintained, and after menstruation.

Some researchers linked pathological changes in breast tissue with an excess of estrogen in a woman whose level under adverse conditions is not reduced to almost zero by the end of the cycle, but remains elevated.

The cause of mastitis may also be an excess of pituitary hormone prolactin, which stimulates breast milk production and forms the maternal instinct. The role of prolactin is especially important during pregnancy when the mammary gland prepares for lactation. In this period there is a physiological cell proliferation (growth) tissue cancer. Prolactin enables the synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and milk production of After the end of lactation prolactin decreases to baseline. Abnormal increase in the level of this hormone is pregnancy and lactation may be the cause of mastitis. Often there is not permanent, and the so-called latent, hidden increase in prolactin levels, which usually occurs at night or in a short time, and therefore can not be fixed with standard hormonal examination. These irregular bursts of hormone secretion is often caused in the breast engorgement, swelling, tenderness, especially in the second phase of the menstrual cycle or just before menstruation, as well as autonomic dysfunction, migraine headaches, swelling of extremities, abdominal pain, flatulence. This complex is referred to as premenstrual syndrome. With the onset of menstrual bleeding, all of these symptoms usually disappear. Increased secretion of prolactin is a chronic stimulator of mammary gland factor causing ill effects of mastitis. One of the distinguishing features of breast cancer is that its normal structure is characterized by great variability depending on age, reproductive system and menstrual period. In this regard, even doctors sometimes difficult to distinguish physiological from pathological changes in tissues, as well as determine the type of pathology.

Breast disease has many faces. In fact, we can talk more about a group of diseases - dishormonal dysplasia of the breast - with complex clinical and histological picture, and united by a common term "breast." To date, there are a large number of classifications dishormonal dysplasia, each of which is more or less fully reflects the progressive and regressive changes. If on the classification of nodules of considerable disagreement among experts does not arise, with respect to the diffuse form, there are certain difficulties, which do not allow to enter a fairly wide range of changes in the rigid classification framework.

In recent years, is a growing clinical and radiological classification, which divides the diffuse form of mastitis in the following four subtypes:

diffuse cystic disease of the breast with a predominance of the component

diffuse disease of the breast with a predominance of the fibrous component
mixed form of diffuse mastopathy

sclerosing adenosis.

The criterion for determining the subspecies is the ratio of connective tissue, glandular and adipose tissue components.


Breast - pluricausal disease associated with genetic factors and environmental factors and lifestyle of patients. Currently identified conditions conducive to the emergence and development of breast diseases that can provide a contingent of women with an increased risk of disease. Because benign disease and breast cancer have a lot in common etiological factors and pathogenetic mechanisms, risk factors for the development of mastopathy and breast cancer in many respects identical.

Of paramount importance is the hereditary factor in the first place - is the presence of benign and malignant disease in relatives on the maternal side. One of the most frequent adverse factors is an inflammation of the uterus, because the inflammation disorganized production of sex hormones. The majority of patients with various forms of mastitis detected thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism increases the risk of mastopathy in 3.8 times.

Important reason contributing to the emergence of mastitis are various diseases of the liver, bile ducts and gall bladder. The liver plays an important role in breaking down the excess estrogen produced. With her illness, this ability is reduced or even lost, resulting in increased hormone levels. Of the internal risk factors may play a role obesity, especially combined with diabetes and hypertension. It is known that the presence of the entire triad of risk of mastitis, and breast cancer is increased threefold. Another risk factor for dishormonal changes in the mammary gland is iodine deficiency, contributing to violations in the hypothalamus - the mammary gland.

Greater risk of contracting mastopathy woman is under stress, neurosis, depression. Prolonged psychological stress is one of the leading causative factors of mastitis.

Violations of the hormonal balance in the female body are also caused by irregular sexual life. Women's loneliness, lack of stable family life - all this contributes to the development of pathological processes in the breast.

Circumstantial risk factors - addiction to alcohol and smoking. May increase the risk of developing breast diseases exposure to ionizing radiation. Finally, the serious consequences threatening trauma of breast cancer. Dangerous even microtrauma, when the subway, the bus pressed, squeezed, accidentally struck in the chest with an elbow or a bag. Induced abortion increases the risk of breast pathology. The women, who produced three or more medical abortion, the risk of mastopathy in 7.2 times higher. Abortion interrupts the proliferative processes in the mammary glands and the tissue is subjected to regression. These regressive changes occur unevenly, and the development of the glands may become pathological. Oddly enough, with an increased risk of breast diseases associated high socio-economic level (diet, environment mega-cities, and later the birth of their first child, etc.).

Increased risk of mastopathy and breast cancer under the influence of unfavorable factors such as the absence of pregnancy or later first pregnancy, lack of breast-feeding or a short period. Almost all researchers emphasize the age at which occurred the first and subsequent births. In particular, women who have given birth to two children under 25 years old, have a threefold lower risk of developing breast diseases compared to only one who had a child. Age is also an important risk factor for cancer. Typically, the incidence of breast cancer increases progressively with age and is 30-50% by age 75 years. A connection between increased risk of disease with early onset of menstruation and late termination. The factors that provide a protective effect include early labor (20-25 years), breast-feeding, the number of births (more than two) with a full lactation.

So, more likely to develop mastopathy, if a woman is:
  • did not give birth or have only one child
  • has a family history of maternal
  • did not feed or breast feed for long
  • made a lot of abortions
  • does not conduct regular sex life
  • exposed to stress
  • live in poor environmental conditions
  • obese, diabetes, diseases of the appendages, thyroid, liver
  • drink alcohol, smoke
  • suffered even a minor chest injury


Often the causal factors are complex interactions, forming a common unfavorable background. The complexity of assessing total causal factors dictating the need for regular inspection of the complex (samoosmotr breasts, mammography, consultation mammologist) for almost every woman.



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1  [p during the day, so as to compensate for the loss of their night.


Needed to treat snoring, especially if the first signs of obstructive sleep apnea, such as restless sleep surface, sweating and palpitations night urination, fatigue and headaches in the morning, a sharp daytime sleepiness, irritability, impaired memory and attention.

Diagnosis of snoring is placed without difficulty. For this query the relatives and carry out screening tests. However, there are additional instrumental techniques for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. Patients were administered polysomnography - a method of study of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in the patient during sleep.

If possible, you should remove the cause of snoring. Patients should avoid risk factors:
Do not smoke before bed
do not drink alcohol.

Treatment of snoring.

There are various methods of conservative and surgical treatment of snoring and sleep apnea. Conservative methods are aimed at increasing the respiratory tract. Patients must choose the correct position for sleep. There are also special intraoral device, prevents snoring. Patients can do special exercises to reduce snoring.

Surgical correction of snoring and sleep apnea involves complex operations, improve nasal breathing, increase the clearance of the pharynx, which reduce the size of the soft palate and pharyngeal lymphoid formations. These operations are usually performed with a laser, ultrasound or mechanical scalpel. It is also possible in-patient treatment with positive airway pressure.

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