Gynecomastia is the development and growth of breast cancer in men. The mammary gland may be increased in men with certain physiological conditions are normal.
This is the newborn period. Boys are born with enlarged breasts. This condition persists 2-4 weeks, then the breasts are reduced.
Puberty during adolescence may also be accompanied by an increase in mammary glands. This increase in the rate remains less than two years.
In old age, due to age increasing concentrations of estrogen in the body grow breasts.
Gynecomastia in men can occur in diseases neendokrinnoy nature: in the recovery from depletion period, in violation of the kidneys, the liver cirrhosis. Gynecomastia occurs most often in violation of the synthesis or action in the body of male sex hormones - androgens (testosterone, methyltestosterone). This occurs after testicular inflammatory disease, testicular tumors, Klinefelter's syndrome patients. Increased secretion in the body of female sex hormones - estrogen also increases the size of the breast in men. Estrogens appear in greater numbers in the male germ cell tumors testicular feminizing adrenal tumors, tumors of the lungs or other organs, accompanied by increased production of the hormone - human chorionic gonadotropin. This is also the spurious hermaphroditism.
Gynecomastia occurs and in the use of certain medications:
Development of mammary glands identify the female sex hormones - estrogen and the pituitary hormone - prolactin. In the male normally has a certain amount of estrogen (about 0.001% of the amount of androgens). In various pathological conditions of estrogen increases the percentage of broken or action of male sex hormones (decreased tissue sensitivity to testosterone). Under the influence of estrogen is a growth and development of mammary glands in males of female type with the formation of glandular lobules. If there is an adenoma (benign tumor of glandular tissue), the pituitary gland, which produces the hormone prolactin in the mammary glands is the growth and development of connective tissue and increase fat deposits in the breast.
The normal mammary gland in men is a rudimentary organ, consisting of the nipple ducts short and fat. When gynecomastia breast increases in size and compacted. It may be painful at palpation. Can be increased as one or both breasts. For cancer breast enlargement in men may be caused by disease of the glands themselves, or if the tumors in different organs is production of estrogen and human chorionic gonadotropin.
In renal insufficiency, the mammary glands grow under the influence of elevated estrogen levels and reduce testosterone levels.
In cirrhosis of the liver, which is most often alcoholic, gynecomastia is due to alcoholic testicular damage. This reduces the production of testosterone.
Breast enlargement is due to the reduction of testosterone in hypogonadism (gonadal insufficiency) and hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex and testes.
Medications cause gynecomastia due to various reasons. For example the drug spironolactone (veroshpiron) blocks androgen receptors, thus reducing their effect in the body, stimulates the production of prolactin cimetidine. Anticancer drugs have toxic effects on male gonads - testes.
Treatment of gynecomastia.
Treatment of gynecomastia depends on the underlying disease, which led to an increase in mammary glands. Sometimes, if a teenager there was a significant increase in mammary glands, there is a need for plastic surgery.
For cancer treatment of gynecomastia operative. By reducing the function of male gonadal hormone replacement therapy is conducted.
Drug gynecomastia usually resolves on its own to remove the drug.