Stomach cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the gastric mucosa. In economically developed countries, the incidence (prevalence) of gastric cancer has decreased significantly, mainly due to changes in food quality. In Russia, stomach cancer is the second highest incidence of other neoplasms, second lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. In many countries it is still confidently holds the first place. The annual incidence in the world - about 800,000 new cases and nearly 600,000 deaths. Most people get sick after 50 years in this category is dominated by men. The highest survival rate after detection of gastric cancer observed in Japan. This is due to screening (mass) examination, giving the early detection of disease.
Causes of stomach cancer, but rather, the factors contributing to the development of a sufficiently diverse. Main group of causes account for particular food and the environment:
Feeding habits: the predominance of flour food, reducing the consumption of vitamin C; lack of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of smoked and heavily fried foods, high consumption of animal fats, canned food.
Increased alcohol consumption and alcohol on an empty stomach. Smoking also contributes to the development of gastric cancer.
Excessive intake of nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines, and especially with food.
Infection Factor (H. Pylor i-Helicobacter and Campylobacter, which is a favorite habitat is the stomach).
Have a protective effect:
Many fruits and vegetables (mainly due to the content of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, beta-carotene, as well as the presence of nonspecific sorbents).
Green tea (due to the suppression of the production of interleukin-8)
Freezing of products instead of canning (significantly reduces the incidence of stomach cancer because of the lack of preservatives and reducing the amount of carcinogens).
Stomach cancer - a whole range of diseases, different appearance, the type of growth, a tendency to metastazirovanpiyu, etc. But it should be noted that most (approximately 95%) - is adenocarcinoma. The most unusual place of cancer - cardiac (upper) part of the stomach morphological form of cancer affects the prognosis of the disease. Thus, the polypoid forms are usually less aggressive and give a better prognosis.
Precancer of the stomach - a stomach intestinal metaplasia of the epithelium, from which later develop highly differentiated and sometimes polypoid tumor. Another interesting fact is that polyps and ulcers in themselves do not usually considered mandatory pre-cancerous diseases, as lead to cancer is very rare. However, about 40% specific, villous polyps can become cancerous, about 3% of gastric ulcers in fact turn out to be cancer, and chronic atrophic gastritis - one of the most fearsome of cancer precursors. All this requires more careful attention to these diseases and serious attitude towards their treatment.
Clinic for stomach cancer usually appears quite late, which once again underlines the need for preventive examinations. Characterized by:
General weakness and fatigue.
Discomfort and / or epigastric pain (above the navel).
Loss of appetite.
Feeling of heaviness after eating.
Changing the chair.
Bleeding, which can manifest itself chalking (black stools).
Diagnosis of gastric cancer
With early diagnosis of gastric cancer using:
Specific markers (carbohydrate antigen CA 19-19, CA 72-4, and some others).
Endoscopy with visual inspection, using specific dyes, biopsy and cytology content and / or suspicious areas. These methods allow almost unerringly detect precancerous lesions, as well as the main macroscopic types of early gastric cancer: Type I - rising or polypous,
Type II - a flat, Type III - an in-depth, or ulcer (a defect is detected in the mucous membrane of the type of ulcers).
Other imaging techniques: X-ray, fluoroscopy, computed tomography - CT, MRI - magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, PET - positron emission tomography, laparoscopic diagnosis.
Additional laboratory studies.
Treatment of gastric cancer
In the treatment of gastric cancer using all three methods: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. The basic method is surgical, but sometimes used combined methods, which include, in addition to surgery, chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy. The outcome of treatment in addition to histological forms closely related to the time of detection of gastric cancer, so early detection of cancer - the key to successful treatment.