Chronic autoimmune gastritis or gastritis type A - is associated with impaired immune processes in the body and is usually hereditary in nature. Found it significantly less often than other gastritis. Some researchers believe that such chronic gastritis is not more than 1% of all chronic gastritis. According to other authors the frequency of autoimmune chronic gastritis from 10 to 15%.
The causes of autoimmune chronic gastritis has not been fully elucidated. It is believed that the development of such gastric damage to the triggering of the gastric mucosa, which can occur when habitual overeating, eating spicy acidic foods, roughage, and under the influence of other factors. After the initial mucosal injury caused by the mechanism of heredity runs autoimmune processes.
Autoimmune chronic gastritis accompanied by a deficiency in the body's immune system. This lack of production of secretory immunoglobulin A. In addition, the formation of antibodies to parietal (parietal) cells of the stomach that produce hydrochloric acid, antibodies to gastro mukoproteina factor (Castle), the main component of the protective barrier of the stomach. The antibodies destroy the cells of the gastric glands. As a result, there is atrophy of the gastric mucosa
Top of the autoimmune process going on in those parts of the gastric parietal cells are concentrated. This is the body and the bottom of the stomach. The defeat of these cells leads to a sharp decrease in the secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, gastromukoproteina. Gastromukoprotein also responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the stomach. As a result, reduce its number in the stomach decreases absorption of vitamin B12, and B12 deficiency develop anemia.
Patients with autoimmune chronic gastritis complain of heaviness in the stomach, fullness after meals. Pain in the stomach are much rarer. After the meal there burping air and over time there is a burp bitter or rancid flavor. There is heartburn. The patient's appetite is gradually reduced and atrophy of the mucous membrane and reducing the gastric secretory function, it may be a significant weight loss. From the patient's bowels are concerned rumbling, gurgling in the abdomen may occur constipation, diarrhea alternated. Sometimes after a meal can occur weakness, sweating, dizziness.
Over time, disturbed absorption in the stomach and intestines of various essential body nutrients. Develop dry skin and blurred vision due to vitamin A deficiency, pallor due to anemia. Lack of vitamin C can cause the appearance of bleeding gums. There is a growing loss of hair, nails become brittle.
The diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis set by X-ray (X-ray of the stomach), gastro macroscopic (fibrogastroduodenoscopy), histological studies. We study the functional state of the stomach - sensing of the stomach, intragastric pH-metry. Appointed by the immunological study of blood.
Treatment of chronic gastritis have to be assigned to the individual and for the type of gastritis, the stages of its course, the state of gastric secretory function.
The first patient is recommended proper nutrition. During the acute assigned a diet with mechanical, thermal and chemical schazheniya mucosa. Food should be chopped without coarse fibers, steamed. Hot and cold meals are excluded. The food is recommended to take in the form of heat.
Excluded and the irritating gastric mucosa products - sour, spicy, fried, smoked, salted. Not allowed to drink carbonated and alcoholic beverages, digestible carbohydrates (sweets, cakes, chocolate), spices, sauces, pickles, and preserves. Preference will be given boiled meat and fish, porridges, thick soups on loosely broth, sour milk products, vegetables and fruit in boiled form. In the form of drink consumed jelly, mousse, weak tea, jelly, mineral water and cocoa. Coffee is prohibited.
In severe pains in the stomach appointed holinoliticheskie drugs (platifillin, gastrotsepin, metatsin), antispasmodic drugs (galidor, papaverine, Buscopan). In order to eliminate violations of gastric motility using tserukal, motilium.
In the initial stages of chronic gastritis, when not yet developed atrophic processes and the acidity of gastric contents is high, appointed by the histamine receptor blocker - ranitidine, famotidine. Used drugs conditioning the gastric mucosa - Venter, bismuth preparations. By reducing gastric secretory function due to atrophy of the mucous membrane to normalize the digestive juice of plantain used drugs, plantaglyutsid.
If atrophic processes in the stomach led to a complete absence of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, appointed replacement therapy - a natural gastric juice, pepsidil, atsidin-pepsin, abomin. Used panzinorm, mezim, Creon, pankurmen. Occasionally, these drugs have to be applied to the patient for life. Appointed by the vitamins. In the case of anemia necessarily apply vitamin B12 and folic acid. The patient is recommended to spa treatment in sanatoria gastrointestinal profile.