Angiographic study methodology is the introduction into the vascular bed of radiopaque substance. Immediately with the introduction of this substance produced a series of radiographic images.
Depending on the type of angiographic contrast material entering the place may be different. To visualize the pathology of the arteries - arteriography, the varieties of which will be discussed in a separate article, the contrast is injected through a puncture in the groin crease or in the underarm area (depending on the level of blood vessels). To visualize the pathology of the veins - phlebography - a puncture, mostly done in the area of the foot. Phlebography is most often used for the diagnosis of complications of varicose veins and detection of thrombosis.
On the eve before angiography the patient stops eating. If the puncture is planned in the inguinal folds or in the underarm area. You may need to shave in that area. Typically, the procedure does not require anesthesia angiography is assigned a sedative (calming). Prior to angiography, the patient always carried allergotest to the contrast agent that he would enter. To do this, the patient's skin on the arm of 0.1 ml of contrast injected, after which the observation took place for the puncture and the general condition of the patient.
Immediately before the angiographic procedure, the patient is established intravenous system (drip), if during the procedure will need to enter certain drugs.
Location of injection treated with antiseptic solution and local anesthetic is anesthetized. Next is a small incision to facilitate the needle. In the center of the needle for angiography is the so-called stylet - a tube, tightly filling the lumen of the needle. Once the needle is introduced into the vessel, the doctor takes out no stylet and introduces her special light guide.
Injected through the needle guide to the place where it is necessary to perform angiography. This process is controlled by a special X-ray monitor. Once the wire is in the right place, the needle, through which he introduced, is removed and the catheter is passed to the conductor to the point of the study. after which the conductor is also removed.
Depending on the type carried out by angiography, contrast material injected with a syringe or by hand, or a special device. Most often this is used a special device. Before using such a device directly to the doctor himself introduces a small amount of contrast, to make sure that the catheter is in the right place. The patient is warned that he will now introduce the contrast, and it must remain calm. At the time of the contrast may be found side effects such as headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, flushing and chest pain, but they usually pass quickly. To view the site from different angles of the vessel, the patient is asked to change position several times, and sometimes may require additional injections.
During the procedure, angiography is a series of radiographic images. Injected contrast medium solution quickly dissolves in the bloodstream because of the high blood flow velocity. Therefore, images must be done quickly. In many centers, angiography is used digital photography. This allows you to process images on a computer.
After the procedure angiography boat gently removed. Place a finger pressed against the puncture, then this place is put a bag of sand at 10-2 - minutes, so as not to bruise formed. Then the compressive bandage is applied on the day.
The above method of angiography varies depending on the organ under investigation.
Possible complications of angiography include:
Allergic reactions to radiopaque substance
Bleeding at the site of catheter insertion
Damage to heart valve or coronary artery
Angiographic studies are very informative and can detect serious illnesses early on. Preference for angiography should be given to specialized clinics and experienced doctors angiografistam.