When a weak area expands the blood vessel in the form of container, this is called an aneurysm. Most often affects the aortic aneurysm - the main artery of the body. The aorta carries blood from the heart to all other organs and tissues. Part of the aorta, located in the chest, is the naming of the infant department. Often, the aorta, which is located in the abdominal cavity, called the ventral division.
Peripheral artery aneurysms are affected less frequently than the aorta. The most commonly affects the peripheral aneurysm of the popliteal artery, which runs down the back of the knee. Less commonly affects the femoral artery aneurysm in the inguinal folds, the carotid artery in the neck and sometimes on the upper extremity arteries. A special type of peripheral aneurysms, which affects the arteries of the kidneys or intestines, called visceral aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysms can cause serious complications such as rupture or separation. Although aneurysms rarely rupture of peripheral arteries, and yet this could happen. However, peripheral artery aneurysms often observed the formation of blood clots that can cause blockage of blood vessels of the brain or extremities.
Aneurysms of the peripheral arteries, especially at larger sizes, can compress the nerves pass near or vein and cause pain, numbness, or swelling.
What are the symptoms of peripheral artery aneurysms?
At the beginning of the disease the patient may not feel any signs of the presence of an aneurysm, especially if it small size. Two out of three patients with peripheral arterial aneurysm not mention any signs of disease.
Symptoms of peripheral aneurysm depend on its size and location. Possible signs of peripheral artery aneurysms:
Pulsating sensation of Education
Pain or cramps in the arms or legs during exercise
Pain in the arm or leg at rest
Painful sores or wounds on the fingers or toes
Radiating pain or numbness in hands or feet, associated with compression of the nerves
Gangrene (necrosis) of tissue resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the arteries
With involvement of the carotid arteries, there may be symptoms of transient ischemic attacks or stroke. On this detail in the section on diseases of the carotid arteries. With involvement of the arteries, intestines, symptoms mesenteric ischemia.
Causes of peripheral arterial aneurysms
The cause of peripheral artery aneurysms may be an infection or lesion of the arteries of any other reason. However, the main cause of aneurysms is still unclear what. Researchers believe the main cause of aneurysm atherosclerosis. In a normal artery wall has a smooth, flat surface. It has a certain elasticity. When atherosclerosis in the arteries appear singular growths - atherosclerotic plaques, which consist of cholesterol, calcium and fibrous tissue. Over time, the arteries become less elastic. Under the influence of high blood pressure (eg, in the aorta of 120 mm Hg) arterial wall expands - there the aneurysm.
Factors contributing to this process:
High blood pressure
High cholesterol in the blood
With age, the risk of peripheral artery aneurysms increases.
Diagnosis of peripheral arterial aneurysms
Initially, the doctor knows the patient's complaints, their nature, when they appeared and what related. Further held pleased instrumental studies. We list these methods:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Angiography - the most invasive
More information about each method of investigation can be found in the relevant razelah.
It is known that many patients with aneurysms in addition suffer from heart disease. Therefore, before the operative treatment of aneurysms should be evaluated the cardiovascular system. This includes performing an electrocardiogram, an ultrasound of the heart, and others.
As untreated aneurysm of peripheral arteries?
Treatment for an aneurysm depends on its location, size, symptoms, and presence of complications of the aneurysm in the form of blood clots. For example, an aneurysm of the popliteal artery is not an indication for surgery. In this case, the doctor may recommend the following:
Control risk factors for atherosclerosis
Regular walking in order to maintain adequate blood flow to the leg
Do not cross legs
To monitor the hygiene of the feet and the appearance of sores on the fingers - a sign, which is a signal of circulatory disturbances
Although an aneurysm of the popliteal artery is rarely broken, sometimes it may thrombose, resulting in disturbed blood flow in the leg. Such aneurysms can also be a source of blood clots and particles of atheromatous plaques, which also leads to impaired circulation in the lower leg. Ultimately, these phenomena lead to disastrous results - amputation of the lower extremities (fingers, feet and above). So often in aneurysms of the femoral or popliteal artery is the best option only surgical treatment. Aneurysms of the carotid arteries of the upper extremities and several other clinic. But their treatment is the same as for all aneurysms.
Usually in the treatment of peripheral artery aneurysms vascular surgeons use a bypass or prosthetics.
Bypass surgery is the surgeon creates from a "donor" vessel (usually the saphenous vein thigh) workaround for blood flow. An aneurysm is deleted. This operation is usually performed under local anesthesia, sometimes under the general (all depends on the severity and location of the aneurysm).
When the surgeon removes part of prosthetic artery aneurysm struck, and in its place a synthetic graft sutured in the form of tubes. The material from which the prosthesis is made of the vessel in its properties and characteristics close to the properties of the arterial wall.
When thrombosis of the lumen of the artery aneurysms method is used thrombolytic therapy, which consists in the fact that almost a blood clot through a special catheter during angiography, thrombolytic agent is introduced - a substance that dissolves clots. However, this method is effective only when fresh thrombus.
There is another new method of endovascular surgery - stents. The method consists in the fact that with the help of a catheter that is used for angiography in the artery to the site of the aneurysm, the stent is supplied - a special design of cylindrical shape, which serves as a framework for the altered wall aneurysmal artery extended. This method is used when the risk of conventional surgery is high.
In some cases, especially with inadequate treatment, the patient may develop gangrene - necrosis. The changes in the tissue is irreversible. The only way to preserve the health of the patient in this case - amputation. Prevention of peripheral arterial aneurysms
Prevention of aneurysm development is to eliminate the risk of their occurrence. About them already mentioned above.