Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons. In place of attachment of tendons to bone and periosteum is absent tendon fibers are woven directly into the bone. Between the fibers of the tendon is cartilage, which has a varying degree of ossification and strengthens the attachment of tendons, as well as playing the role of depreciation at a voltage change and traction of the muscles.
When muscle tension point of attachment to their skeleton experiencing a heavy load. If the load is regular and excessive, tissue tendons, cartilage in places subject to attachment of degenerative changes. There are small areas of necrosis (tissue necrosis), tissue sections of fatty degeneration of the tendon and cartilage, the deposition of calcium salts. Deposition of calcium salts occur most often in the place where once there was a mikrorazryv tendon fibers. Calcium salts are a solid education and, in turn, can injure the surrounding tissue.
During prolonged exercise cartilage between the tendon fibers regenerated, ossified, bony growths appear - spikes, osteophytes, and bone spurs. All these processes lead to tendinosis, which are manifested by pain in the places of attachment of tendons, the increasing load attached muscles and palpation.
Tendinosis or tendinopathies are above the load on this muscle. Most often occur in tendinosis sportsmen, as they load on the muscles are extremely high. Depending on the different sports tendinosis localization varies. This, in turn, depends on the most loaded muscle.
Sports injuries - tendinosis in places of attachment of the trapezius muscle, rhomboid muscle, tooth muscles in the spinous processes of cervical vertebrae and verhnegrudnyh are most often found when doing sports such as throwing, gymnastics, tennis, tobogganing, weightlifting.
Tendinosis tendon and biceps muscles klyuvoplechevidnoy the place of attachment to the coracoid process of scapula (korakoidit) occurs in those who engaged in throwing, volleyball, handball, tennis, weightlifting. And table tennis, handball, volleyball, cross country skiing, biathlon, javelin throwing, volleyball, accompanied by the load on the extensors of the fingers and hand, provoke the development of tendonitis in the place of attachment of these muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. This is known as tennis elbow or tennis elbow.
Elbow thrower - it's tendinitis in the insertion of the flexor wrist and fingers - the internal epicondyle of the humerus. Thrower's elbow occurs in throwing spears, volleyball players. Tendinitis in the wrist are typical for athletes whose career fencing, gymnastics, diving, boxing and table tennis. Tendonitis in the elbow flexor attachment site at the wrist pisiform bone occurs in people who have diving. Do players who are experiencing great stress on the lower extremities may develop tendinitis sites of attachment to the gracilis branch of the ischium (gracilis syndrome), a direct femoris tubercle to pubic bone, resulting in muscle length at the site of its attachment to the tubercle ischium. For those who are engaged in cross-country sports, fencing, weightlifting, and the same players are developing tendinitis in places of attachment of the quadriceps femoris to the patella, tendinitis in the field of attachment of the patellar lateral ligaments.
It often tendinitis in the Achilles tendon attachment site of the calcaneal tuber and tendinitis in the place of attachment to the peroneus longus short tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone. These are characteristic of tendinitis involved in running, jumping, volleyball, basketball, football. Patients complain of pain at the tendon. The pain intensified by stress, sometimes impossible burden because of the pain. When probing the insertion of the relevant muscles, the pain intensified. Help in the diagnosis may have a X-ray, but only if there is a long-term tendinitis and leads to changes in the structure of bone tissue at the site of attachment of muscle tendons. In other cases, changes on radiographs do not show.
Treatment of sports injuries. Treatment of tendinitis begins with unloading of the affected tendon. Training is recommended to stop or hold them, with no load on the affected muscle. With great pain shall be appointed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, analgesic ointments. With a significant swelling of the tissues within a few days appointed decongestant preparations.
Applied physiotherapy. If pain can not be cut short in the area of attachment of tendons injected glucocorticoid hormones. Usually it gives a good analgesic effect, but this introduction should not be used often. Since glucocorticoid hormones can lead to bone loss, degeneration of connective tissue. Occasionally, when persistent pain syndrome is necessary to resort to surgical treatment.