Chronic inflammation of the pharynx is divided into:
chronic simple (catarrhal)
chronic atrophic pharyngitis.
The emergence of chronic pharyngitis, in most cases due to local irritation of the mucous membrane glotki.V some cases, the cause of the disease may be metabolic disease (diathesis in children, adult diabetes, etc.), stagnation in cardiovascular diseases, diseases of blood-forming organs, etc. Among the local causes are more likely to meet recurrent acute inflammation of the pharynx, chronic inflammation of palatine tonsils and the other, nose and paranasal sinuses, smoking, damage to the throat, nasal congestion for a long shutdown.
Hypertrophic form of pharyngitis is characterized by thickening and loosening of the connective tissue stroma of both the mucosal and submucosal layer. Serous fluid, soaking mucosa, gradually organized and replaced by cellular elements. The mucous membrane becomes thicker and thicker. Mucous glands and goblet increased, their secretion is increased, the excretory ducts of mucous glands enlarged. Lymphoid formations scattered throughout the mucosa in the norm in the form of subtle granules, greatly thickened and expanded, often at the expense of fusion pellets. Epithelium, are breaking the mucous membrane becomes thicker. Hypertrophic process may primarily relate to the mucosa of the posterior pharyngeal wall - pharyngitis granulosa or to the side of its divisions - the lateral hypertrophic pharyngitis.
In atrophic chronic pharyngitis thinned mucosa, lymphoid tissue and its submucosal layer is partially replaced by connective tissue fibers. The magnitude of the mucous glands and their number is reduced. The number of vessels they also reduced their walls are often thickened, and the gaps are narrowed, sometimes obliterated. Covers the mucous membrane of the epithelium, mostly horny, sometimes desquamated. Symptomatology is characterized by a sense of rawness, tickling, increased lacrimation, necessitating almost constant coughing, expectoration, especially in the morning.
When hypertrophic pharyngitis, all these phenomena are expressed to a greater extent than in a simple form of the disease. The main complaint with atrophic pharyngitis is a feeling of dryness in the throat, difficulty swallowing frequently, often bad breath. Patients often want to drink a sip of water, especially during prolonged conversations.
Simple chronic catarrhal process is characterized by hyperemia faringoskopicheski, some swelling and thickening of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, in some places the surface of its back wall covered with slime.
When hypertrophic pharyngitis granulosa these changes are more pronounced. The mucous membrane intensely hyperemic and thickened, more noticeable stagnation, characterized by rounded or elongated structures limfadenoidnyh red ot1 - 5 mm, or as nearly identical red beans.
For lateral hypertrophic pharyngitis is characterized by hypertrophy limfadenoidnoy tissue located in the lateral folds of the pharynx. In this case the appearance of the rest of the mucous membrane of the pharynx usually corresponds to the picture moderately pronounced hypertrophic process.
Atrophic pharyngitis is characterized by thinning and dryness of the mucous membrane, it is usually pale pink, can be brilliant and have a painted look.