Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or limfomatozny thyroiditis is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid autoimmune nature, when in the human body form antibodies and lymphocytes, damaging its own thyroid cells. (Normally, antibodies in the human body are produced only by foreign substance).
Hashimoto's thyroiditis most frequently occurs in patients between 40 and 50 years, and women are ten times more often than men. This is the most common inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. And more recently autoimmune tiroiditom suffers more and more young patients and children.
It is believed that autoimmune thyroiditis is limfomatozny hereditary nature. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients' relatives often diabetes, various thyroid disorders. But to implement the hereditary predisposition need more adverse external factors. These include respiratory viral diseases, chronic foci of infection in the tonsils, sinuses, decayed teeth.
Contribute to the development of autoimmune tiroidita long uncontrolled reception iodine preparations, the effect of radiation. Under the influence of a provoking factor in the body activated lymphocyte clones that initiate the reaction of antibodies to their own cells. The result of this process is to damage the thyroid cells (thyrocytes). From damaged thyroid cells in the blood gets the contents of the follicles: hormones, destroyed part of the internal cell organelles, which in turn contribute to the further formation of antibodies to the cells of the thyroid gland. The process becomes cyclical.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is often long runs without any clinical manifestations. By the early signs include discomfort in the thyroid gland, the feeling of a lump in my throat when swallowing, a feeling of pressure in the throat. Sometimes there is not strong pain in the thyroid gland, mainly in the thyroid gland palpation. Some patients may complain of mild fatigue, joint pain.
If the patient appears hyperthyroidism (due to the large release of hormones into the bloodstream if damaged thyroid cells) the following complaints:
acceleration of heart rate
high blood pressure.
Most often the state of hyperthyroidism occurs early in the disease. In the subsequent thyroid function may be normal or reduced neskolgo (gipotiroz). Hypothyroidism usually occurs after 5-15 years of disease onset and degree of uslivaetsya under adverse conditions. In acute respiratory viral diseases, mental and physical overload, exacerbation of various chronic diseases.
Depending on the clinical picture and the size of the thyroid gland chronic autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimoto divided on the form:
atrophic form of autoimmune thyroiditis. In the atrophic form of thyroid enlargement does not happen. It occurs in most patients, but more often in the elderly and younger patients who have undergone radiation. Usually this form of clinically accompanied by a reduction of thyroid function (gipotiroz).
hypertrophic form of hypertrophic form of autoimmune tiroidita always accompanied by an increase in thyroid cancer. The thyroid gland can be uniformly increased throughout the entire volume (diffuse hypertrophic form), or the presence of marked nodes (nodal form). Perhaps a combination of diffuse and nodular forms. Hypertrophic form of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis tiroidita may be accompanied at the beginning of the disease, but most of thyroid function is normal or reduced.
The diagnosis of autoimmune tiroidita set on the basis of clinical history, characteristic clinical picture. In general, blood analysis revealed an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the overall decline in the number of leukocytes. In the stage of hyperthyroidism increases the level of thyroid hormones in the blood, decreasing function of the gland, the amount of hormones in the blood decreases, while increasing the level of pituitary hormone thyrotropin. Detect changes in immunological. Ultrasound found an increase in thyroid nodular irregularity in its form tiroidita. Biopsy (examination under a microscope a small piece of thyroid tissue) reveal a large number of lymphocytes and other cells, characteristic of autoimmune limfomatoznogo tiroidita.
Treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Treatment of Hashimoto tiroidita medication. At elevated thyroid function assigned tirostatiki (tiamazol, merkazolil), beta-blockers. To reduce the production of antibodies appointed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
Prescribers to correct the immune system, vitamins, adaptogens. At a reduced thyroid function assigned to synthetic thyroid hormones. Prognosis is satisfactory. The disease progresses slowly. At the appointed time treatment can significantly slow down the process and achieve long-term remission of the disease.