Heavier usually burns. The severity of local and general destruction in chemical burns depends on the concentration of the substance, its quantity and duration of exposure to the fabric. The deepest and most extensive lesions occur after a burn alkali.
When thermal and chemical burns are three degrees of pathological changes in tissues:
erythema (Grade 1)
blistering (Grade 2)
necrosis (Grade 3).
Low-concentration solutions and the weak thermal effect usually causes catarrhal inflammation (erythema) of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and esophagus, which usually results in complete recovery without scarring formations.
In cases where the damage is limited to the mucosa, there are superficial adhesions, scar annular folds that do not break the whole wall plasticity.
With the defeat of the muscular layer of the pharynx and esophagus are formed deep cicatrices entire body wall thickness, resulting in damage to the area sharply limited flexibility and extensibility of the walls of the esophagus and pharynx.
In the first hours and days after the burn concerned acute pain in the throat and in the course of the esophagus, increasing swallowing and coughing. The mucous membrane of the lips, oral cavity, pharynx, formed extensive corpses: white with thermal burns, acetic acid and alkali, dense yellow with nitric acid burns, black and brown with burns sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. If the toxic substance got into the larynx and trachea, there are signs of coughing and choking. In some cases, can be identified by smell.
First-degree burns damaged surface epithelial layer, which is rejected at the 3-4den, exposing hyperemic mucosa, and general condition of the patient is suffering a little.
Second-degree burns cause intoxication, which is most pronounced at 6-7 days in the period of exclusion of necrotic patches, leaving erosion. Since the thickness of the mucous membrane is damaged, healing granulation with the outcome of superficial scar.
When third-degree burn is damaged mucosa and underlying tissues at different depths, there is a severe intoxication. Crust rejection occurs in the second week. Form deep ulcers, delayed healing which for several weeks and sometimes months. In this form the tidal deep scars.
Burns of the esophagus is not rarely associated with complications such as laryngitis, bronchitis, esophagus, mediastenit, esophageal tracheal fistula, pneumonia, sepsis, and malnutrition.