Children with autism - a violation of mental retardation, characterized by autistic form of contact with others, and motility disorders of speech, stereotyped activities and behaviors that lead to violations of social взаимодействия.Распространенность autism is 4-5 persons per 10 thousand children.
Currently the following types of autistic disorders:
cindrom Kanner autism early childhood (children's classic version of autism)
cindrom Asperger (autistic psychopathy)
Autism, which develops after the onset of schizophrenia (children's "procedural" autism).
Kanner's autism is characterized by autistic children fenced off from the real world with a disability form communication and uneven ripening of mental, verbal, motor and emotional spheres of life. Children characterized by the lack of distinction between animate and inanimate objects, stereotyped behavior and play, not imitation, reveals a lack of reaction to his surroundings. Form of communication with their families - a symbiotic, or indifferent, that is, without an emotional reaction, up to a failure to communicate with them.
Changing the usual stereotype of life or the emergence of new objects can cause aggression or self-injury. In children, a frozen facial expression, directed into the void view, the lack of response "in the eye." Motility angular stereotypical movements, walking on the "chicks". It is poorly developed, violated the pronunciation of sounds, there is no tonal transfer, the voice is loud, it becomes quiet. Patients almost incapable of dialogue. Sometimes it is restored to 6.8 years. Features of children's autism are the relative safety of the abstract forms of understanding reality. Particularly sharp change game activity. Games are often stereotyped, not a plot.
For children's autism Kanner characterized by negative reaction to any attempt to change the usual stereotype of life. From an early age children violated the instinctual life: changing appetite, difficulty falling asleep, the response of others is absent or there is increased sensitivity. Autism becomes the most complete form at the age of 3-6 years. By 6.5 years of manifestation yes partially compensated, but mental development is dramatically behind.
Asperger's syndrome children are similar to patients with the syndrome Kanner, but differ from them is sufficient to retain a greater preservation of speech and intelligence, as well as a more favorable prognosis in general.
Rett syndrome is different from those described two syndromes autistic disorders its presence only in girls, the occurrence after a period of normal development, expressed neuromorphological pathology and a combination of mental disorders with severe neurological disorders. Rett syndrome occurs in children with normal pregnancy, childbirth and development in the first months of life (sometimes up to 18 months). Then there is a stop in the development and catastrophic regression of all forms of mental activity with the emergence of motor stereotypies, autism, and progressive motor decline, followed by disability and death.
After the onset of schizophrenia, autism begins in children of 3-5 years of age after a period of normal mental development by type of psychosis. Changes in the status and development occur for no apparent reason and grow gradually. The condition can manifest neurosis disorders, catatonic, mood disorders. Upon emerging from psychosis in a clinical picture revealed a stop in brain development, changes in motor activity, speech disorder, a disorder of self-consciousness, emotional impoverishment and pronounced autism.