Normally, the pulmonary veins carry arterial blood from the lungs and flow into the left atrium. From there the blood enters the left ventricle and the aorta and arteries carries oxygen throughout the body.
In the anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, they may fall into the right atrium or in the hollow load-bearing vein venous blood into the right atrium.
This defect may be complete or partial.
At full anomalous pulmonary venous drainage is no direct communication between the pulmonary veins (small circle of blood circulation) and the left atrium (the systemic circulation). This state nesovsestimo with life. But if the baby has other birth defects (a defect or atrial septum, the foramen ovale closure), blood can still get into the left side of the heart and possibly treatment.
In case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, a Vienna may fall into the left atrium and then the condition of the newborn depends on the amount of abnormal discharge of blood. A complete anomalous pulmonary venous drainage occurs with a frequency of about 3% of all congenital heart defects.
We describe four types of heart disease:
pulmonary veins may fall into a system of superior vena cava, which collects venous blood from the upper limbs and head, found in 55% of cases confluence of pulmonary veins into the right atrium or coronary sinus, occurs in 30% of cases
pulmonary veins may fall into a system of inferior vena cava, which collects blood from the lower limbs, internal organs, occurs in 12% of cases
3% of the cases can be various combinations of the condition.
The condition of patients depends on a full or partial defect. At full anomalous pulmonary venous drainage and the lack of communication between the right and left of the heart at the level of the atrium, novarozhdennye are in critical condition in order to save their lives requires emergency surgery within the first weeks. When congestion occurs partly vice of the right heart, the increase in pressure in the vessels of the lungs. Children of older age groups complain of shortness of breath, fatigue on exertion. Then join the signs of right heart failure.
Auscultated systolic murmur in the second or third intercostal space to the left of the sternum. An electrocardiogram can only be seen signs of stress in the right heart. When X-rays can see an increase in right heart chambers and changes in the lungs. Accurate diagnosis is possible only blemish during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography (research vessels of the heart).
At full anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, if the state of the newborn is critical, usually held closed septotomiya (dissection of the interatrial septum and the establishment of communication between the right and left of the heart). Complete surgical correction of the defect depends on its type. Produce a movement of the mouths of the pulmonary veins into the left atrium with a patch. The results of operations are usually good.