Cystitis - acute and chronic cystitis, cause, treatment
Cystitis is an infectious-inflammatory process in the bladder wall. The most common infectious process affects the lining of the bladder. This layer of cells that lines the inside wall of the bladder. Cystitis occurs much more frequently in women. This anatomic features predispose the female urethra. It is shorter and wider than in men. In addition, due to the proximity of vagina and rectum hole in the outer circumference of the hole channel, there are many different microorganisms.
Cystitis can cause a variety of microorganisms. Most often it is E. coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus. Besides the usual microorganisms cystitis caused by viruses, chlamydia, trichomonas, mushrooms. In men, cystitis is less common. Usually by the appearance of cystitis in men result in diseases of other organs of the urogenital tract.
The penetration of microorganisms into the bladder:
Ascendant. When the bacteria enter the bladder from the external environment in the urine. This occurs at various urethral abnormalities in inflammatory diseases of the urethra, where the conditions for the formation of a turbulent flow of urine and the cast of urine back into the bladder. The infection can get into the bladder through the wall of the ascending urethral infection, when an inflammatory process in the channel.
The top-down. Downward by an infection in the bladder gets in the inflammatory process in the kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, pionefrose.
Hematogenous. Hematogenous (blood-borne) by the infection gets into the bladder from distant septic foci in the body. This path is relatively rare.
Lymphogenous. Lymphogenous (lymphatic vessels of) the path of infection in the bladder normally happens when inflammation in the genitals.
The mucosa of the bladder has a fairly strong protective effect, and to ensure that it originated in the inflammatory process, additional predisposing to infection causes. Promotes cystine circulatory disorders of the bladder wall, impaired bladder emptying, the presence of residual urine in the bladder. Plays an important role and reduced resistance to infection of the body, which occurs when the immune system disorders, vitamin deficiencies, fatigue, chronic diseases of other organs and systems. Cysts occur in chemical lesions of the bladder wall, if the urine contains any impurities, radiation injuries of the bladder. There are also allergic cystitis.
Adrift cystitis are:
Acute cystitis. It starts with a sudden acute cystitis. Usually it is preceded by hypothermia or other provocation. Sometimes, between the beginning of the disease and exposure to a provoking factor is only a few hours. The patient appears frequent urination, accompanied by pain in the bladder. In the urine there is pus, red blood cells later. Pain and frequency of urination depends on the severity of the inflammatory process than it is stronger, more frequent urination, and severity of pain anymore. Sometimes patients have to urinate every 30 minutes. At the end of the urinary bladder can stand a few drops of blood. Pain may spread to the perineum, anus, genitals. Body temperature is usually low, but if the process extends above the kidneys, there is a chill and rise in temperature to 39-40 degrees. The urine is cloudy, there a large number of white blood cells, bacteria, desquamated cell membrane of the urinary bladder. Acute cystitis usually is favorable. After 1-2 weeks attenuates the inflammatory process and the patient recovers. If after 2-3 weeks of acute cystitis does not end, then there is a disease of the genitourinary system, which supports for cystitis. In this case, it may be chronic cystitis.
Chronic cystitis is usually secondary. For its origin to the presence of another disease of the bladder, urinary tract, kidney, or genital organs. Therefore, when a chronic cystitis must spend searching for maintenance of the disease cystitis. Manifestations of chronic cystitis are similar to the manifestations of acute, but less pronounced. Most complaints of frequent urination, pain in the bladder after having a sore throat, flu, pneumonia. For the diagnosis of chronic cystitis conduct laboratory tests of blood and urine. Necessarily carried out cystoscopy, which allows you to set the degree of damage to the walls of the bladder and sometimes the cause of chronic cystitis. To clarify the status of the urinary tract and renal excretory urogram is performed.
Treatment of cystitis. Patients with acute cystitis assigned bed rest, milk-vegetable diet, drinking plenty of fluids (cranberry juice, jelly, alkaline water and juices), diuretic herbs. Be sure to assigned antibiotic therapy (furagin, furadonin, nitroksolin etc). Antibacterials should be taken up to three weeks. For severe pain analgesics are appointed. In chronic cystitis for successful treatment is necessary to establish the cause, which supports the inflammatory process in the bladder. In any case, is also assigned to antibiotic therapy and bladder lavage solution of silver nitrate, or dioksidina collargol. If the long flowing chronic cystitis led to stenosis of ureters or urethra, sometimes surgery is applied. In acute cystitis the favorable prognosis and most patients recover completely and do not get sick. In chronic cystitis, the prognosis depends on the underlying disease.