Acute bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane characterized by an increase above the normal amount, we ¬ bronchial secretions, leading to the separation of sputum and cough, and in lesions of small bronchi - shortness of breath.
Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases of organs breathing.
The etiology and pathogenesis of acute bronchitis
For acute bronchitis predisposes a number of factors, in varying degrees, reduce the general and local resistance, among which the values are:
climatic and weather factors called conditions, including hypothermia and dampness;
abuse of spirits;
violation of the nasal breath;
changes to the congestive heart failure with pulmonary STI n, etc.
Among the etiological factors of acute bronchitis are the following:
physical (excessively dry, hot or cold air);
chemical (various chemical compounds such as acids and alkalis, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide crystals, silicon, etc.);
infections (viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms);
allergic (organic dust, pollen, etc.).
Physical and chemical hazards, irritation bronchial mucosa, reduce local resistance and predispose to the development of the inflammatory process of infectious nature. Of the viruses that cause acute respiratory disease, the most important role in ethnology stop ¬ rogo bronchitis plays the RS virus. Due to their infectious HYDRATED process in most cases accompanied by lesions Niemi bronchial tree, whereas in other ARI incidence of bronchitis is much smaller.
Primary bacterial bronchitis are found, apparently, much less viral and viral-bakterialpyh. In addition to acute respiratory pathogens in the etiology of acute bronchitis may have a value of and arouse a certain other acute infectious processes - measles, whooping cough, tifonaratifoznoy groups, etc. In this case, stop ry bronchitis is a manifestation of the respective disease Bani or its complications.
Acute allergic bronchitis, which can be considered can be regarded as a manifestation of predastmy, occur in individuals with congenital Noah predisposition to allergic reactions.
The inflammatory process in acute bronchitis begins as a rule, with the defeat of the nasopharynx, extending into the distance what follows to the lower respiratory tract - the larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Caught in the respiratory tract virus introduc is measured in epithelial cells by disrupting the metabolic processes in them, which leads to cell death. The number of damaged epithelium lialnyh cells typically proportional to the pathogenicity of virus ca.
The death of the damaged epithelium opens the way deep into the tissue bacterial infection - the most cha one hundred pneumococcus and hemophilic bacillus, at least - staphylococci. Bacterial flora is usually attached to viral expression in airway with a 2-3rd day. This definition determines the further course of emerged inflammation, which contribute to changes in blood vessels (microcirculation disturbances tion, mikrotrombozy) and nerve cells (violation of the tro fictions).
Prolonged duration of acute bronchitis is more common in viral and bacterial nature of it. He also contributes to bronchial obstruction due to pre ¬ marched bronchial lesions. The complications of bronchitis ( stop the paradise pneumonia, etc.) are due, usually bacterial infection Noah (pneumococcus, hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus lotisty zone, etc.).