The goal of treatment of hypertensive crisis - a reduction of blood pressure to its previous level. It should be noted that this reduction should be carried out smoothly and slowly, as the sudden decrease in blood pressure may experience a collapse. The collapse - a state of rapid decline in blood pressure, accompanied by loss of consciousness and other consequences.
It is believed that the time necessary to reduce blood pressure by no more than 10 mmHg
For the treatment of hypertensive crisis can be used various drugs that are used in the treatment of hypertension. Mainly engaged in the treatment of hypertensive crisis ambulance doctors, but sometimes the general practitioner, or any other profession, who was close to the patient. In some cases, the treatment of hypertensive crisis, and is held without the participation of a physician when the patient (or his close family members) already knows what the drug will help them quickly and efficiently. The choice of drug first aid often depends on the preferences of doctors, medical supplies and equipment, etc.
Among the drugs that are used for the treatment of hypertensive crisis include the following groups:
ACE inhibitors. These drugs are mainly used to treat hypertension, but can also be used in crisis. Most often, these drugs are used in pill form, which resolves with Stroke (that is, a tablet placed under the tongue). One of these drugs is enam or Enap.
Beta blockers. These drugs block beta-adrenergic receptors in the walls of the arteries, as well as the heart, resulting in the expansion of the lumen of arteries and slowing of the heartbeat. These medications include propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, Inderal, obzidan, labetalol.
Clonidine. This drug is often considered a classic for the treatment of hypertensive crisis. Note that it is a pretty powerful hypotensive agent, and therefore should be used with caution. The fact that clonidine may cause a sharp drop in blood pressure until the collapse. Therefore, clonidine should be taken only with the patient supine and after the adoption of needed bed rest. Clonidine is also taken as a tablet under the tongue. There is also a form of intravenous clonidine.
Preparations miorelaxing action. These drugs relax the smooth muscles of arteries, causing them to expand the lumen and blood pressure decreases. These drugs include dibazol, which is often used in combination with other drugs of similar action - papaverine.
Calcium channel blockers. These drugs are also used as a treatment for hypertension and for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and angina. These medications include verapamil, izoptina etc.
Diuretics. These drugs are also used effectively in the treatment of hypertensive crisis. For this purpose, use is usually a loop diuretic, an effect which occurs rapidly. Among them are the Lasix (furosemide).
Nitrates. These drugs are widely used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Their effect is aimed at expanding the lumen of the artery. Among nitrates, which are used in hypertensive crises, we can say sodium nitroprusside (niprid, Naniprus), which is administered as an intravenous infusion.
Have you noticed that almost all drugs in hypertensive crises are used either intravenously or in pill form for sucking mouth. This is due to the fact that:
In hypertensive crises often have nausea and vomiting, resulting in the use of oral medication is ineffective.
Oral drugs are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is quite slow, in addition, marked narrowing of Stroke in small arteries, including and arteries of the intestine, for which the drug should be absorbed into the bloodstream.
When taking the drug buccally (where it dissolves in the mouth and absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth), he does not fall into the portal vein and liver, which is partially destroyed, and immediately enter the bloodstream.