Hypertension in pregnant women may develop before pregnancy or during pregnancy. These patients are at high risk of developing such conditions as preeclampsia or eclampsia. Typically, these states are characteristic for the last trimester of pregnancy. During pre-eclampsia, which can develop in patients with arterial hypertension and without, in women there is an increase in blood pressure, loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria) and swelling. For eclampsia is characterized by all else, and seizures.
In severe cases of eclampsia, the most effective method of treatment is the birth of a child. The main goal of treatment for high blood pressure in eclampsia is to lower diastolic blood pressure to 105 mmHg to prevent the development of a brain hemorrhage or seizures.
If hypertension develops in the first half of pregnancy, it is almost all related to existing disease, but not with preeclampsia. Hypertension that develops during pregnancy is called gestational hypertension. Such women are not marked proteinuria, edema, or seizures, and very high blood pressure do not have a negative effect on the organism of the woman or the fetus. This form of hypertension are allowed to own immediately after birth.
The use of pharmacological treatment of hypertension during pregnancy that's debatable. The main question is "what level is necessary to restrain the high blood pressure?". The risk of mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus is small. A very large decrease in blood pressure can disrupt blood flow to the placenta, resulting in deteriorating fetal development. Therefore, in this situation need a compromise.
Not always when mild or moderate hypertension should be treated with medication. In carrying out the treatment of blood pressure should be reduced gradually to a level no lower than 140/80 mmHg
Antihypertensive drugs that are used to treat pregnant women should be safe for the fetus. Most often used for this purpose, beta blockers, vasodilators, labetalol, aldomet (drug clonidine group), and calcium channel blockers.
But some drugs are contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. This is ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and diuretics. ACE inhibitors may exacerbate the lack of blood supply to the uterus and affect kidney function in the fetus. Diuretics can disrupt the placental circulation.