Tick-borne spring-summer (or taiga) encephalitis is an acute viral disease characterized by sudden onset, fever, and severe CNS. He refers to the natural focal diseases, that is, occurs in certain regions. In Russia, it is usually, Siberia, the Urals and the Far East. While isolated cases are possible in the central regions. In nature, the virus has a host - tick, and the tank - a mouse, chipmunks, hedgehogs and birds, which infects the tick bite with, and which carry ticks and during migration to other areas. Infection of man in the vast majority of cases occur when the tick bite, contact with other patients or infected animals is impossible. More than a rare infection of the way - after eating contaminated food, usually raw goat's milk.
The disease is seasonal in nature, that the period of activity associated with the mite. For different regions of Russia during this period is different, but he has the spring-summer months. After the virus enters the tick bite with its saliva into the blood of man. At the site of the bite - swelling and redness. The longer the tick is on the skin, the greater the likelihood of a massive infection of humans. Roughly pronounced local reaction also goes in the severe disease. There are several forms of the disease. For all of them characterized by the appearance of symptoms of the brain and spinal cord, the only difference is the severity of symptoms and the presence or absence of paralysis of the muscles. In general, the disease can be described as follows.
Deterioration usually begins acutely with a sharp rise in temperature to 39-40oC, chills, severe headache, nausea and vomiting. Consciousness is retained, but in severe cases, stupor, and possibly the development of delirium with visual hallucinations. At the 2-4th day the symptoms, talking about the defeat of the virus tissue of the brain and spinal cord stiff and sore neck muscles, impaired tendon reflexes, or the appearance of pain along the nerve trunks in the hands and feet. Perhaps the development of paralysis of individual muscles of the neck, face, shoulders and arms, resulting in the patient can not raise your hands up and dissolve them in hand, bend and straighten the elbows. Because of the weakness of the muscles of the neck develops typical symptom of this disease, "hanging" of the head. In severe cases may develop paralysis of respiratory muscles and the larynx, which may be hazardous to the patient's life by disabling any of breath.
In the future course of the disease varies greatly:
In that case, if the paralysis did not develop, then a full recovery is possible in 5-10 days: the temperature gradually decreases, and muscle pain, the disease may resemble a normal uncomplicated influenza.
If, however, developed acute paralysis, the regression of symptoms is slower - up to a month. In addition, when possible during severe residual neurological symptoms in the form of enduring paralysis of individual muscles, or the development of the so-called Kozhevnikov epilepsy. Both complication persists for life.
Paralysis manifest weakness in hands or feet, some change in gait or posture. Kozhevnikov epilepsy seen twitching in the limbs and trunk, which can propagate the wave through the body. At the same time the consciousness of the patient intact and intelligence and other brain functions are not affected.
Treatment of the disease should begin with the introduction of specific immunoglobulin. The dose depends on the degree of infection in ticks. Therefore, ideally it would be to remove it from the skin and examined for the presence of the virus in it. Further treatment depends on the disease: elimination of neurological complications, detoxification of the body, the purpose of sedation. Treatment should begin as soon as possible after the discovery of a tick bite.