The transverse flatfoot is common, approximately 80% of all cases of flat feet. Women suffer 20 times more often than men. The transverse arch formed by the bones of the paw, their heads. The metatarsal bones are joined together in an arch. At the same time support the foot rests on the first and fifth metatarsal heads. Support the transversal arch of the foot muscles, interosseous fascia, but the main role played by aponeurosis plantar - aponeurosis of the foot. It is therefore considered that to a large extent in the development of cross-flat plays a role insufficiency ligaments. Contribute to the development of flat cross a lot of weight, walking on his heels, in tight shoes, shoes with narrow toes, the shoes are not on the size, long-term static loads.
In transverse flatfoot forefoot expands and as is spread. Reliance in this case is on all the heads of metatarsal bones, and not on the first and fifth, as is normal. Dramatically increases the load on the previously loaded with 2.4 heads of metatarsal bones, and reduces the load on the first metatarsal head.
Changes and the direction of action of the muscles that are attached to the first toe. This causes a deviation of the first toe of the foot inside. The head of the first metatarsal bone acts outwards, and the first finger rests on the second under a different strain uglom.Takaya first toe is Hallux valgus (valgus halyuks).
In the joint between the first metatarsal head and the main phalanx of the thumb develops osteoarthritis. Movement in this joint is limited, become painful. The remaining toes also are subject to change. In the joints between the heads of the metatarsal bones and phalanges of the fingers occur major subluxation and hammer toes take on the form.
The heads of the metatarsal bones under high pressure dropped down, and press on the layer of subcutaneous fat - pad - foot. Under pressure of this tissue decreases, decreases and its shock-absorbing role. On the skin of feet under the heads of metatarsal bones are formed seals, corns, which are often painful and also limit the function of distance.
According to the degree of curvature of the first toe of the foot are three degrees of transverse flatfoot:
First degree or mild transverse arches. Angle of deformation of the first toe of the foot with less than 20 degrees.
Second degree or moderate transverse arches. Angle of deformation of the first toe of the foot from 20 to 35 degrees.
Third degree or a pronounced lateral arches. Angle of deformation of the first toe of the foot for more than 35 degrees.
Patients with transverse flatfoot complain first to the deformation of the first toe of the foot, which spoils the appearance and prevents pick up shoes. Less commonly, there are pains in the feet, soles, painful corns on the soles, sore elements of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, rough skin growths in the field of acting head of the first metacarpal bone.
Treatment of flat feet and lateral deformation of the first toe of the foot.
Only in the first degree of the disease can be achieved any results conservatively. It is recommended to reduce weight, reduce static load, give up heels. Appointed by the massage, physiotherapy, physiotherapy necessarily. The patient must wear special orthopedic insoles rollers.
For flat 2 and 3 degrees of conservative treatment is futile. Appointed by the surgery. There are over 300 different surgical techniques for treating Hallux valgus. But all the transactions do not eliminate the root cause - weakness of muscles and ligaments.
Operations can be performed on the soft tissues. In this case the muscle tendon transplant, plastic capsule of the joints. Surgery on the bones of a resection of the bone sites. Frequently performed surgical procedures combined. After surgery the patient should always wear shoes with special insoles (insole with a roller Seitz), or instep.