» The defeat of the lymph nodes in breast cancer
The defeat of the lymph nodes in breast cancer
The defeat of the lymph nodes in breast cancer
In some cases, breast cancer may be involved in the process of regional lymph nodes, located in the underarm area. When lymph node cancer cells, they begin to grow in size. The only method that allows reliable detect the presence of lymph node cancer cells is a biopsy with histological examination.
Clinical studies have revealed a possible link between the number of lymph nodes and the degree of invasiveness and malignancy. Knowing the number of lymph nodes is very important for the proper selection of treatment for breast cancer.
Involvement of lymph nodes in the neoplastic process can be divided into the following categories:
Lymph nodes are not affected
Struck 1 - 3 lymph nodes
Struck 4 - 9 nodes
Hit 10 or more lymph nodes.
Lymph node cancer cells can be expressed in three levels:
Minimal changes in the lymph nodes. In the lymph nodes revealed a small amount of cancer cells.
Significant changes in the lymph nodes. As part of the process involves the lymph nodes. They can easily probe.
Ekstrakapsulnoe lymph node involvement. When lymph nodes are affected by this tumor and the cancer process goes beyond the lymph node capsule.
In most cases, the higher the intensity of the lymph node, the malignant neoplastic process. Note that not so much important degree of lymph node cancer process, as far as the total number of tumor-affected lymph nodes.
That is, the more affected lymph nodes, the more pronounced growth of the tumor.
Lymphatic system - protection from infection
The direction of lymph drainage from the area of the breast
In our body except the circulatory system is also available and lymphatic system. It plays an important role in protecting the body against infection. The lymphatic system - a network of vessels that covers the entire body in which the lymph circulates. Working closely with the circulatory system, it is a kind of auxiliary transportation service, removal and recycling.
Lymphatic vessels are close to the arteries and veins through which blood flows. As it flows off the excess fluid from the tissues - lymph. The walls of these veins are very thin and permeable, so that large molecules and particles (including bacteria) are not able to penetrate the blood capillaries, it is easy to be submitted along with the lymph. Thus, lymph cleansing, and even plays a role in our body.
In the way of the lymphatic vessels have special education - lymph nodes. They are accumulations of lymphoid tissue.
The motion carried by the lymph contractions of the muscles, which run through these lymphatic vessels. This contributes to the difference in the concentration of substances dissolved in the lymph and blood. Prevent the backflow of lymph valves similar to valves in the venous system.
Thus, the most important role of lymph - a role of a barrier to infection and certain agents. The role of these barriers are just the lymph nodes. From here they go in the way of all blood and lymphatic vessels fighting the infection lymphocytes.
In the fall of the lymph nodes, vessels and other bacteria are foreign particles are filtered and eliminated, and leaving the lymph node lymphocytes and antibody capture. However, the lymphatic vessels with lymph can circulate not only bacteria and viruses, and cancer cells, leaving the tumor. Lymph nodes, thus becoming the first hurdle in the way of metastatic spread of tumor cells.
And the first signal to the appearance of cancer cells in lymph nodes is an increase. Usually, when their passion for lymph node biopsy performed because this method allows you to reliably estimate their condition.
Usually the lymph flowing from the area of the breast to the lymph nodes in several ways:
From the outer quadrants - in the axillary and subscapular lymph nodes.
From the upper quadrants - in the subclavian, and then supraclavicular lymph nodes.
From the inner quadrants - in the parasternal lymph nodes (located near the sternum).
In addition, the lymph may be flowing in the area behind the pectoral muscles.
Cross-axillary lymph nodes in the path of the opposite side.
The outflow of intradermal nodes in the stomach and groin area.
Evaluation of lymph nodes in breast cancer
The most important areas of lymph nodes that are directly related to diseases of the breast - is axillary lymph nodes (the main area of the lymph nodes), as well as thoracic and supraclavicular lymph nodes. These nodes are the first to react to the development of tumors in the mammary glands.
Therefore, it is logical for suspected breast cancer to assess the condition of the above nodes, namely, their biopsy and excision. However, cancer cells can leave the place of the primary tumor through the blood vessel, and pass through the barrier, which serve as the lymph nodes. Nevertheless, the evaluation of these lymph nodes is very important in the choice of tactics for further treatment and prognosis.
Another goal is to remove the lymph nodes removal limofuzlov affected by cancer. This is done to prevent the further spread of cancer cells from the lymph nodes to other organs and tissues.
Removing lymph nodes can reduce the risk of cancer spread throughout the body. However, lymphadenectomy does not influence the course of cancer, if cancer cells have spread beyond the lymph nodes to other organs and tissues. In this case, you must have a systemic therapy, which aims to impact on cancer cells throughout the body. For systemic therapy is chemotherapy.