Peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer - a chronic disease prone to relapse, characterized by the formation of ulcers in the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum. This disease is one of the most common lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The frequency of peptic ulcer disease from 8-10% of the adult population. The most common ulcer disease occurs in young and middle age. And the younger population is more frequent duodenal ulcer, and the older generation - a stomach ulcer. More common in men. The children suffer from peptic ulcer to 1%.
Causes of peptic ulcer disease are divided into:
predisposing to shape the development of disease
realizing that directly cause the development of ulcers.
By predisposing causes include:
Genetic or hereditary factors. This is a genetically programmed an increased amount of gastric parietal cells that produce hydrochloric acid, resulting in a stomach acidity. High concentrations of blood components to stimulate gastric secretion. The high sensitivity of gastric glandular cells to stimulation. Genetically determined reduction in the synthesis of components or violation of protective gastric barrier - the components of gastric mucus. Found that the ulcer often develops in people with first blood.
Features of the neuro-psychological development of man. Most ulcers occur in people with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system under the influence of negative emotions, mental overload, stressful situations.
The food factor. This rhythm disturbance power. The use of rough, too hot or too cold food, abuse of spices, etc. However, to date, the impact of nutritional factors on the occurrence of gastric ulcers is not proven.
Certain medications can contribute to the development of gastric ulcers. This is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, reserpine, and synthetic hormones, the adrenal cortex. These medicines can either directly damage the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum, and reduce the protective barrier function of the stomach, and activate the aggression factors of gastric juice. Now it is believed that drugs are not caused by chronic peptic ulcer disease and an acute ulcer, which healed after discontinuation of the drug. In chronic peptic ulcer disease, these drugs may aggravate ulcers.
Bad habits. Spirits can also directly cause damage to the mucosa. In addition, alcohol increases gastric secretion, and increases the amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and prolonged use of alcoholic beverages arises chronic gastritis. Smoking and contained in cigarette smoke nicotine stimulates gastric secretion, disrupting the blood supply to the stomach. However, the role of smoking and alcohol consumption also is not proven.
Often the appearance of peptic ulcer disease does not lead any one factor, and the impact of many of them in the complex.
Realizing the cause of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer is today considered the H. pylori infection. Helicobakter pylori enters the stomach with saliva, contaminated food, not sterile medical equipment.
The stomach is always a small amount of urea, which is derived from the blood through the stomach and intestines. From urea by the enzyme urease Helicobacter own forms ammonia, which, being alkaline, neutralizes hydrochloric acid, and creates favorable conditions for the microorganism. Another enzyme produced by a bacterium - mutsinaza - destroys the protein mucin in the gastric mucus and thins mucus. With this Helicobakter pylori penetrates the layer of protective mucus and epithelial cells attached to the mucosa in the antral stomach.
Helicobacter can be attached only to cells blennogenic columnar epithelium. Epithelial cell is damaged, its function is reduced. Next, multiply rapidly and Helicobacter colonize the entire mucosa in the antral stomach. In the mucosa there is an inflammatory process due to the fact that a large number of other enzymes produced by the organism lead to the destruction of cell membranes, alkalization normal acidic environment of the stomach. Ammonia acts on the endocrine cells of the stomach, increasing the production of hormonal substances and reducing the production of gastrin hormone, resulting in increased secretion of hydrochloric acid. Gradually increasing and there is an inflammatory reaction of the gastric mucosa.
Helicobakter pylori produces cytotoxins nazyvemye matter. These substances cause damage to the mucosal cells and can lead to erosion and ulceration of the stomach. If you do not release helicobacter these substances, the ulcer is formed and the process stops at the stage of chronic gastritis.