Stroke - an acute cerebrovascular accident. For reasons of strokes can be divided into two groups:
In ischemic stroke has been a sharp sudden blood flow disturbance in a cerebral artery, resulting in blockage often atheromatous plaque, thrombus, or because of a pronounced spasm.
For hemorrhagic stroke noted a gap of cerebral blood vessels, which manifests hemorrhage into the surrounding tissue.
With a sharp infringement of blood flow in a particular artery of the brain showed a significant anoxia of brain cells and their death. In consequence of the function of dead cells, neurons can take over the neighboring regions of the brain, but the complete restoration of functions, which correspond to the dead neurons are rare.
Hypertension increases the risk of stroke in 4 - 6 times. Over time, hypertension leads to atherosclerosis and thickening of the walls of the arteries. This, in turn, leads to loss of elasticity of the vessels, their balloon expansion, resulting in the brain may appear microaneurysms. In a sudden and sharp increase in blood pressure, these microaneurysms can rupture, causing a hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, hypertension is marked the development of atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of strokes.
What are the signs of stroke
A stroke is suspected by the following features:
Sudden numbness or weakness of certain parts of the face, arms and legs (especially unilateral).
The sudden deterioration of vision in one or both eyes.
Sudden paralysis (usually unilateral).
Sudden dizziness or headache with nausea and vomiting.
Sudden speech difficulty.
Difficulty in swallowing.
Dizziness, impaired balance and coordination.
Loss of consciousness.
It may also be a so-called transient ischemic attack (TIA), which is a precursor of stroke. Her reason - a temporary and somewhat less pronounced cerebral blood flow. Symptoms of TIA are the same as a normal stroke, but they are temporary. Duration of TIA is typically less than 15 minutes. As already mentioned, this state is a precursor to "signal" to the fact that soon we can expect the development of stroke. Therefore, in the case of a TIA should be taken to the treatment and stroke prevention very seriously.
How is a stroke
Stroke - a condition that threatens the life of the patient, therefore, requires immediate medical intervention and ongoing monitoring. Such patients are usually hospitalized in intensive care units.
Treatment of ischemic stroke caused by blockage of a blood clot, is its dissolution. For this purpose drugs called thrombolytics. There are various thrombolytics (streptokinase, sterptodekaza, urokinase, alteplase, etc.). For example, FDA (U.S. organization that deals with the approval of medicinal and cosmetic preparations) has approved only one drug for the treatment of ischemic - tissue plasminogen activator. Drugs in this group as it dissolved the clot. It should be noted that these drugs are available and side effects and contraindications, as they may cause bleeding. Typically, thrombolytics are effective in the early hours (usually 3) from the moment of stroke.
Current treatments for stroke in addition, allow us not only to stop the damage to brain tissue due to hypoxia, but to restore it.
Other medicines used to treat stroke, it may be noted preparations for the treatment of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The latter play an important role in the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke, emerged at the height of arterial pressure.
How to prevent a stroke
About half of the strokes can be prevented. This is possible due to the fact that many risk factors for stroke can be controlled. Here are the risk factors that can be prevented:
High blood pressure (above 140/90 mm Hg),
Atrial fibrillation (a condition in which the observed rapid reduction in atrial chaotic, resulting in their cavities having blood clots)
Diabetes mellitus without adequate treatment,
Elevated levels of cholesterol,
The disease of the carotid or coronary arteries.
Therefore, for the prevention of stroke is so important reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol levels if they are raised to treat diabetes and control blood glucose levels, quit smoking, exercise and maintain normal body weight.
In addition, among the measures for prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction may be noted the regular use of aspirin in small doses (usually ¼ tablet). In this mode, aspirin acts as a blood thinner, that is, prevents thrombosis. However, it is advisable to consult your doctor before you start taking aspirin regularly (and any other drug).
In some cases, surgical treatment of stroke. It consists of two methods: Removal of atheromatous plaque or thrombus (usually with a special long, thin catheter) Expansion of the lumen of the occluded artery by balloon angioplasty (as in the case of ischemic heart disease).
Stroke is the leading cause of disability and disability. Stroke is a 3 position due to mortality. Stroke can be prevented by controlling risk factors. A stroke can be cured, but only if immediate provision of adequate medical care.