Acute shortage of donor organs, the complexity and high cost of the process of organ transplantation, a high percentage of postoperative complications - all this necessitates the development of new biotechnologies, such as transplantation of cells and tissues. It is important to identify priority areas for the use of stem cells.
The main indications for treatment with stem cells are a variety of malignant blood diseases. Also, his use of this method is found in the treatment of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, nervous system diseases, endocrine diseases.
In recent years, is an active scientific research in the area of stem cell transplantation.
The main sources of stem cells are autologous transplantation for - is when the patient's own cells are allogeneic transplants, patients receive stem cells from close relatives, from umbilical cord blood and placenta.
Stem cell transplantation is possible with the use of hematopoietic, embryonic, somatic stem cells.
Hematopoietic stem cells are by far the most studied. In the adult human body more of them is in the red bone marrow. Are a rich source of the placenta and umbilical cord blood.
The main feature of stem cells is that embryonic stem cells form no physiological specialization. In addition, they have several characteristics that define their indispensable function in the provision of education and systems of the human body. They are the precursors of different cell types in the body, that is the first unique "building material" from which later formed the other organs and tissues. Due to the lack of specialization in any organ transplant allows you to create the cells of this particular body, which opens up prospects for recovery of damaged tissues and organs. However, the use of embryonic stem cells is associated with a risk of significant side effects, chief among which is the risk of developing cancer. An additional limitation of their use creates a problem of immune rejection.
Somatic stem cells are found in various organs and tissues and have powerful regenerative abilities. They can be found in the bone marrow, skin, muscle, cornea, heart and gut. Almost all adult stem cells are able to give rise to cells of different types.
Stem is today regarded as the most promising strategy for cell therapy