Osteochondrosis - a degenerative-dystrophic process in the structures of the spine. Strictly speaking, low back pain - this is not a disease but a natural process of aging spine, which, however, a large number of cases leads to a variety of spinal dysfunction and painful manifestations. The frequency of pain in the spine is high. It is believed that about 80% of the planet at least once experienced back pain.
The spine consists of vertebrae, which are interconnected in three places. In front of the vertebral bodies of the vertebrae are linked by intervertebral discs in the rear are two intervertebral joint, called dugootrostchatymi. All together form the spinal column. A healthy spine has mobility. It tilts forward and run backward, sideways, there may be some twisting your spine. The mobility of the intervertebral discs provide. In addition, discs act as cushioning and durable connection between the vertebrae themselves.
The intervertebral disc consists of a fibrous ring, located on the periphery of the disc. It consists of dense connective tissue fibers that are tightly attached firmly to the two adjacent vertebrae, forming a receptacle for the inside of the disc - the nucleus pulposus. Nucleus pulposus - a semi-liquid structure of connective tissue fibers and gelatinous substance - hondrina.
Front drive is an anterior longitudinal ligament, which strengthens the spine. It is attached to the vertebral bodies and being transferred freely across disks. Is behind the posterior longitudinal ligament, while it forms the anterior wall of the spinal canal (the channel in which the spinal cord). This bundle tightly adherent to the disks. Own vessels and discs do not have their food is due to diffusion of the subject area of bone of the vertebral bodies, the blood supply which in turn depends on the movement of the joint fluid and muscle contraction.
Load distribution on the bone implements nucleus pulposus. Due to its semi-structure, it distributes the load evenly on the entire surface of the vertebra. There are many theories of the causes of degenerative disc disease and back pain. But in most cases impossible to isolate any one cause. Almost always, low back pain is caused by a complex variety of reasons.
Top of degenerative changes in the spine often occurs in the intervertebral disc. Initially, various pathological effects lead to structural and biochemical changes nucleus pulposus. It dries, it loses mobility. Annulus also undergoes degenerative changes. Reduced its strength and under load on the spine it cracks. Sometimes these cracks occur acutely, when lifting a patient severity. Some patients say that they heard banging in the back. Perhaps at this point there is really a crack in the fibrous ring.
When exposed to increased physical activity or if the spinal muscular apparatus of untrained and does not act to maintain the spine, through cracks in the fibrous ring is squeezed out of the nucleus pulposus. If the core is squeezed sideways through a crack in the fibrous ring and the so-called disc herniation. If the herniated disc falls to the side, it is possible narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and compression of the nerve root passes there. This is accompanied by the corresponding nerve dysfunction, pain and symptoms of sciatica or radiculopathy. But the contents of the nucleus pulposus can extrude and into the adjacent vertebra.
This is accompanied by damage to the restrictive (the closing) and the bone plate of the nucleus pulposus is located in an adjacent vertebra. Formed called the hernia - paraduodenal hernia. By itself, paraduodenal hernia is virtually no manifest. Its only significance is that the height of the disk, lost part of the nucleus pulposus decreases, which again leads to a narrowing of the intervertebral foramen.
Degenerative changes of intervertebral discs is likely to disrupt their function in the proper distribution of load on the spine, reduced subsidies and function. This leads to an uneven increase the load on the bony structures and ligaments. Bone at the border is sealed with a disc, the sides of the vertebral bone growth formed the boundary - osteophytes, which develop compensatory, in order to increase the area of spine and reduce the burden on him. This process is called spondylosis.
But osteophytes may be a cause of back pain when irritated annulus and ligaments spine, where a lot of nerve endings. All of these degenerative processes worsen the already impaired blood supply to the disc and spinal structures, causing venous congestion. The burden on the intervertebral joints also undergo degenerative changes, they develop osteoarthritis. This is called spondylarthrosis