The method of angioplasty is that the place of the narrowed portion of the artery is supplied with a special catheter is inflated balloon on the end. This method is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease, chronic obstruction of arteries, narrowing the carotid, renal arteries etc.
Coronary Angioplasty (or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) was first performed by Andreas Gryuntsigom. Technique of angioplasty immediately found his followers, and has been modified by many surgeons. By the mid-1980s, many of the leading cardiac centers have adopted this method as an alternative to bypass surgery. It is often combined with angioplasty techniques such as stenting.
The cause of coronary heart disease, as well as many other ischemic diseases - a narrowing of the arteries, caused mainly by the appearance of the inner wall of the artery build-up Special - atherosclerotic plaques. Other causes narrowing of the lumen of the arteries may be a violation of the structure of muscle membrane in a specific portion of the artery
Who shows the angioplasty?
When the use of cardiac medications or lifestyle are not able to sufficiently reduce the manifestations of coronary heart disease, or you have a heart attack, you may be offered angioplasty. Before the angioplasty is usually carried out X-rays of arteries (called coronary angiography - an x-ray method for determining the state of the vascular lumen of the heart).
Angioplasty shows the following categories of patients:
Small level of vasoconstriction
You have access to the site of narrowing of the vessel at angioplasty
The restriction is not in the main artery of the heart, which delivers the systemic heart
The absence of heart failure
If there is narrowing of the main arteries of the heart, which delivers the left side of the heart, or there is a concomitant heart failure, or narrowed small arteries, then the best alternative to coronary bypass surgery is considered. This method is also indicated in a patient of diabetes, or if multiple states vasoconstriction.
Preparing for angioplasty
Before surgery, angioplasty, the patient passes the full exam. Conducted electrocardiogram, chest radiography, and blood and urine tests. Usually before surgery is recommended famine. Be sure to consult your physician. If you are taking any medication, especially when it comes antidiabetic agents.
As with the stent, balloon catheter to the narrowed section of artery is fed through the femoral artery. Access to the femoral artery angioplasty by using a special needle "introducer." Often such a procedure is called percutaneous angioplasty. Once the introducer is in the femoral artery, its stylet (inner part) is removed. Through the lumen of the introducer into the artery gently introduce long flexible plastic tube, called a "guide-catheters." The catheter tip is brought to the mouth of the coronary artery. With the help of a catheter conductor can also carry out a so-called intraoperative angiography. This allows us to identify the stage and the precise localization of the restriction sites of the artery.
On the basis of intraoperative coronary artery heart surgeon assesses the size and chooses the appropriate type of balloon catheter and a guide. In order to thin the blood and prevent blood clots assigned heparin.
Explorer is a very thin wire with radiopaque tip, which is a guide catheter is introduced into the coronary arterial disease. Getting the picture in real time, the surgeon directs the handler to the place of constriction, while its tip is to place restrictions. Now the conductor serves as a guidebook to the place of constriction of the artery. At this stage the artery balloon catheter is introduced. He has an empty tip, which can inflate. Catheter with inflated balloon is introduced into the artery to place the restriction, After that the catheter balloon is inflated, thereby crushing the atherosclerotic plaque and widening the artery.
If the cartridge is installed in this operation the stent, the latter as it is pushed into the artery wall and allow it to shrink again.
Complications of angioplasty
Complications with this procedure are similar to those of stenting.
Allergic reactions to radiopaque substance
Bleeding at the site of catheter insertion
Damage to heart valve or coronary artery
The results of angioplasty
In most patients, angioplasty greatly improves blood flow in coronary arteries. It greatly reduces the need for coronary bypass surgery. I should say that she does not treat the cause of angioplasty with coronary heart disease. Subsequently, the patient may again appear symptoms. Therefore, it is first necessary to follow a diet, quit smoking and reduce stress. Postoperative period after angioplasty
The patient is usually over two days at the office. Six hours after angioplasty, the patient can already walk. Complete recovery occurs within a week.