Pericardium and heart bag is outer shell of the heart. It consists of two sheets. Denser outer layer consisting of connective tissue, internal - of a single layer of cells.
Pericardial sac performs important functions for the correct operation of the heart. Pericardium reinforces the heart in the chest and keeps the heart in normal position. It serves as a barrier to penetration of the chest infection in the heart, prevents the excessive expansion of the heart, helps to maintain the desired pressure in the chambers of the heart.
Diseases of the pericardium:
1. Inflammatory diseases of the pericardium - pericarditis. The form of pericarditis are:
exudative (accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the cavity of the heart bag and compartment syndrome of the heart)
fibrinous (dry, fluid in the pericardial cavity is absent, pericarditis is characterized by acute pain in the heart)
adhesive. Adrift pericarditis is divided into acute and chronic.
2. Noninflammatory diseases of pericardium injury.
3. Tumors of the pericardium. Tumors of the pericardium can be both malignant (cancer, sarcoma) or benign (fibroids, fibroids, etc.). Primary pericardial tumors are rare. Sometimes they can become very large. Most tumors develop due to pericardial metastasis of breast cancer or lung disease. Benign tumors of the pericardium is often not apparent and there are a random finding in studies on other diseases. For diagnostic use computed tomography.
4. Cysts of the pericardium. This is a benign, representing the cavity with the liquid inside. Are rare. Sometimes, when large size and rapid growth may be a danger to the patient's life, causing compression of the heart. Most are accidental finding during radiological examination.
Five. Anomalies and malformations of the pericardium. For congenital malformations are congenital pericardial cysts and diverticula of the pericardium (the blind processes of the pericardial cavity). Usually their size from a few millimeters to 2-3 cm Sometimes they manifest complaints of cough, shortness of breath, discomfort in the heart with a sharp change of the body. The diagnosis is established by X-ray or CT scan.
The most common diseases of pericardial effusion, and are constrictive pericarditis, which allows separate consideration.