Otosclerosis - a kind of dystrophic diseases of the ear, mainly affecting the bone capsule of the labyrinth. The disease is caused by a pathological process in bone labyrinth, often leading to fixation of stapes base of the window arches that lead to immobility stirrup and hearing loss. Causes are unknown.
More common in women, especially during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, menopause. There are many hypotheses, but now there is evidence that otosclerosis is a systemic disease, with affected not only the maze, but the occipital bone, spine and wrists.
Symptoms and course of otosclerosis. Distinguished from the increase in symptoms quick, or fleeting, a form of otosclerosis (11%) slow (68% of patients) intermittent (21% of patients).
In the course of the disease are three periods:
pronounced manifestation of all the main symptoms
The disease can remain for many years in the initial period or expressed, and the final period in most cases it does not. Progressive conductive hearing loss on the type of noise in the ear and number of violations of exchange nature.
The first clinical symptoms usually appear between the ages of 16-20 years. Hearing loss occurs silently, and then increases gradually at first in one ear. Hearing loss in both ears revealed only a few months or even years. May eventually join hearing loss type zvukovospriyatiya (neuritis).
Diagnosis of otosclerosis is made up of complaints, physical examination, hearing test (audiogram). When viewed from the ear - otoscopy, changes in the tympanic membrane is not, the ear canal skin is thin and thin-skinned, very large external auditory canal, there is no sulfur.
Treatment of otosclerosis conservative can only reduce the noise. When hearing loss is 30-35 dB is shown the operation, which resulted in improvement of hearing occurs in 80-90% of patients. Possible surgical treatment. Performed microsurgical operation on the stirrup - stapedoplastika.