Mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. It opens in diastole and in predsedno-ventricular opening into the left ventricle through the mitral valve is free to the arterial blood enters the right atrium. In systole the valve closes when the blood pressure reduction of the left ventricle and prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium. The valve consists of two wings.
Infectious and other diseases of the heart valves can become deformed valve, to thicken. Then, the valve does not close completely, between the wings is a result of the hole and the valve can not completely prevent the backflow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Part of the blood from the left ventricle of the heart falls back into the left atrium. First, the left atrium hypertrophies, but due to the fact that its muscle layer is thin and not designed for heavy loads, soon happens decompensation and left atrium stretches and grows in size. Since all the blood from the lungs does not have time pumped, there is increased pressure in the vessels of the lungs. At the same time because of the large blood flow in the diastole phase of the left ventricle of the heart, it is also hypertrophied, but over time its compensatory abilities as running out and there is a lack of left ventricular function. Ultimately, increasing the load on the right of the heart and there is congestion in the systemic circulation.
As long as the heart compensates for the lack of mitral valve, the patient has no complaints, even at high physical activity. Over time, there are shortness of breath with exertion, and then alone, attacks of cardiac asthma (dry cough with little phlegm, occasionally coughing up blood). Pain in the diverse nature of the heart and not always depend on the exercise. Swollen veins in the neck, nails and toes become bluish color, there is swelling in the legs. Very often, mitral regurgitation complicated by atrial fibrillation.
Mitral insufficiency - Diagnosis
When listening to detect systolic murmur at the apex of the heart. On the electrocardiogram are increasing left atrium and left ventricle. On radiographs there is an increase of the left heart. Often, for further diagnosis produce X-ray study with contrasted esophagus. Echocardiography revealed deformed mitral valve regurgitation of the left ventricle into the left atrium, increasing the size of the left atrium and left ventricle.
Mitral regurgitation - Treatment
Surgical treatment of mitral valve insufficiency. The basic operation to restore the function of mitral valve prosthesis is a valve. Recently produce plastic valve. Sometimes it gives the best results. But plastic surgery on the mitral valve is almost impossible with rheumatic defects. There are many techniques like prosthetics and plastic valve. Their use depends on the degree and type of mitral valve lesions. The results show the advantage of surgical treatment of mitral valve plastic correction.
Mortality in this type of surgical treatment of lower - 1,4-3% and prosthetic valve surgery mortality from 2.5 to 5%. But with plastic surgery on the valve more than 15% of cases there is a need for reoperation.