Among the diverse origins and clinical manifestations of headaches is one of the most common form - it is a migraine. The disease is an inherited, usually manifests itself in every generation. In one family of migraine attacks with their relatives have significant similarity to each other. Appears migraine is very common - in the form of recurrent attacks of headache, often on one side of the head. Explained by the nature of such violation by a sudden pain innervation of cerebral vessels. which leads to a sharp spasm of pain and development. Violation of the innervation of a specific arterial verv brain is likely to set genetically.
The disease mostly begins in adolescence and is the main manifestation of a migraine attack. Until the emergence of a headache (early childhood) may develop other periodic syndromes that are one-sided or the sudden nature - for example, abdominal pain (abdominal migraine), or recurrent vomiting or dizziness. Further, typical migraine attacks. Headache with them in most cases is unilateral, localized in the repetition of attacks in the same half of the head. Significantly less pain the whole head or there is an alternation of the parties localization of seizures. Pain is felt mainly in the temple, have a throbbing, boring character, by the end of the attack turn into stupid. Varying the intensity of pain - from moderate to very large, portable hard. Pain increases with exercise.
During an attack of pain occurs improvement in overall sensitivity dislike of bright lights, loud noises, touching the skin. Patients often seek to be alone in a dark room, avoiding movements, lie with eyes closed. Often brings some relief to the contraction of the head with a handkerchief or towel. Migraine attack is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, cold extremities, pallor, or, conversely, red face, at least - retrosternal pain that mimic cardiac disorders, or disorders chair. There may be depressed mood, anxiety, fear, severe depression at the time of the attack. A few days before the attack, there may be a reduction in performance and mood, apathy, depression, sleepiness, at least - emotional arousal.
The immediate appearance of an attack may be preceded by a number of clinical manifestations, which are called the "aura" migraine, for example, visual disturbances in the form of zigzags or sparks flickering indistinct contours, or a sensation of numbness right or left side of the body, some indistinct sounds. The aura is usually constant in front of every episode from the same patient.
In the treatment of migraine using four main classes of drugs - analgesics, antiemetics, and sedation cardiovascular drugs such as antidepressants. In addition to pharmacological agents may use psychotherapeutic techniques - hypnosis, autogenic training for muscle relaxation, which allows some patients to control and reduce the pain of an attack on their own.