Measurement of blood pressure is carried out using a special device - sphygmomanometer, or as it is called a tonometer. It is directly from the sphygmomanometer, which is used for compression of the brachial artery and recording the level of pressure and stethoscope, listen to the tones that pulsation of the artery.
In order to measure blood pressure, you need to wrap the cuff around the upper arm tonometer patient (ie, above the elbow for a couple of centimeters). Next to the area of the ulnar fovea, slightly medially applied stethoscope head. After this pear is pumped air into the cuff. Thus szhivaetsya brachial artery. Usually it is sufficient to bring the pressure in the cuff to 160 - 180 mmHg, but it may be necessary to raise the pressure level and above, if the pressure is measured in a patient suffering from hypertension.
After reaching a certain level of blood pressure, the air from the cuff gradually begin to lower with the valve. At the same time listen to the tones of the brachial artery pulsation. As soon as the stethoscope pulse beats appear artery, the blood pressure is the upper (systolic blood pressure). The air continues down, and the tones gradually weaken. Once the pulse has ceased to be heard, the blood pressure is lower (diastolic).
In addition, it is possible to measure the pressure and without stethoscope. Instead, the blood pressure is noted by the appearance and disappearance of the pulse at the wrist.
To date, there are electronic devices for measuring blood pressure.
Sometimes it is necessary to measure blood pressure in both arms, as it may be different. Pressure measurement should be performed in a relaxed atmosphere, the patient should sit at the same time.
What affects the blood pressure
At the rate of blood pressure depends on various factors, so it is important to establish standard conditions for measurement of pressure. So, measure your blood pressure should be at least an hour before eating, physical activity, smoking, or coffee.
Isolated elevation of systolic blood pressure
Systolic pressure - the top is the pressure, and it reflects the work of the heart. The upper limit of systolic blood pressure usually goes up to 140 mmHg In an isolated increase in systolic blood pressure level of the upper pressure observed above 140 mmHg, but diastolic pressure (bottom) is less than 90 mm Hg This pathology is characteristic for the elderly. In this case there is an increase of so-called pulse pressure. Pulse pressure - the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Normally, it ranges from 40 to 50 mmHg
At present, increasing pulse pressure is a harbinger of significant disturbances in the body. Increased pulse pressure indicates an increase in 2 - 4 times the risk of future enlargement of the heart, myocardial infarction and stroke, and mortality from these diseases. Clinical studies show that the decrease in pulse pressure for at least 20 mmHg to below 160 mm Hg can reduce this risk.
Border hypertension - a condition in which the observed episodic pressure increase slightly above 140/90 mm Hg in the rest of the time this figure is lower. In the case of border hypertension, such patients should be regularly measured blood pressure and control the state authorities to identify the significance of increasing blood pressure.
People with borderline hypertension have tendency to increase blood pressure with age. In these patients most at risk of heart disease. Therefore, even if initially hypertension is not so much, so patients need to constantly monitor the level of pressure to avoid complications.
If during monitoring the level of pressure, it is consistently high (over 140/90t mmHg), it is necessary to start treatment and to take antihypertensive drugs. In some cases, it is recommended to start treatment even at the boundary level of diastolic (lower) pressure.