Congenital anomalies of the external nose caused by disturbance of embryonic development are relatively rare. This is a complete absence or underdevelopment of the nose, excessive growth of its parts, abnormal position and development of the whole nose or of its departments.
In practice, such marked deformity of the nose, such as:
splitting of the nose
formation of the nose in the form of one or two trunks
absence of one or both halves of the external nose
fistulas or cysts of the nose
malformations of the nasal turbinate
choanal atresia (holes through which the nose is connected to the pharynx).
Deformities of the nose are often combined with malformations of other organs and body parts, such as cleft palate or a solid, upper lip, hypoplasia of the brain, limbs, etc.
Treatment of deformities of the nose surgery alone. Indications for surgery depends on the nature of the anomaly, the degree of defect and presence of other malformations.
Less severe and more are available for surgical treatment of fistulas, and nasal dermoid cyst arising from a violation of embryonic rudiments of the epithelium. Typically, the cyst is located under the back of the nose in connection with the nasal bones, cartilage. The cyst may open fistula from which the hair stand. Cyst causing pressure atrophy of adjacent sections of bone, which causes deformation of the external nose.
Operations are performed in early childhood, to achieve better cosmetic results and prevents abnormal development of facial bones due to the deformity.
Congenital choanal atresia occurs due to the fact that during the embryonic period of mesenchymal tissue covering the openings of the membrane in the form of Joan, fully or partially resolved. Subsequently, this membrane is usually ossified (bone formed atresia choanal) or converted into connective tissue.
Bilateral choanal atresia can cause asphyxia and neonatal death, since he does not have the reflex to open his mouth for breathing.
In partial choanal atresia and pathological phenomena occur in the form of abnormal development of the facial skeleton, in particular upper front teeth grow properly formed high heaven, and if one-sided atresia, then a high palate with just one hand, the nasal septum is deflected in the direction of atresia.
Diagnosis of congenital choanal atresia by using sensing, infusion through the catheter into the nose of water (full of atresia it is poured back).
Early surgical intervention is necessary in the first year of life. In cases where a life-threatening imperforate choanal necessary to operate the newborn.