At the present stage of development of medicine in the problem of chronic liver disease liver transplantation is the basic position as the only radical method of treatment. The growth of the indications for liver transplantation, improved surgical techniques, better anesthesia equipment, methods Intensive Care Unit, on the one hand, and the increasing shortage of organs, as well as the need for liver transplantation in children, have an incentive to develop new methods of liver transplantation.
The most common indication for liver transplantation in children (depending on age) are cholestatic diseases, metabolic diseases, acute liver failure, cirrhosis of the liver. Among the indications for liver transplantation in patients younger age group in the first place there is a congenital malformation of the bile ducts - biliary atresia.
Recommended criteria for the selection of potential recipients for the transplantation of the liver should take into account the causes of liver disease, severity of the potential recipient, the available data on the prognosis of the disease.
Liver transplantation from a living related donor can reduce the time spent on the waiting list and has several advantages, such as the ability to prepare routine donor-recipient pairs for surgery, careful preoperative examination with the study of anatomy and the preferred method of vascular reconstruction. Require computed tomography or preferably magnetic resonance imaging, as the small size of blood vessels and bile ducts baby body cause certain technical difficulties.
In this regard, in many developed countries, the method of transplantation of the liver from a living donor is increasingly used in pediatric practice, and in some countries, where cadaveric donation opportunities are limited, the only way to save the life of a sick child.
Transplantation of the liver from a living related donor for patients of younger age groups tend to use the left lateral section of the graft liver. This is due to the fact that the left lateral section of the adult liver donor's most consistent anatomical structure of the vascular bed and the required mass of the child body.
In determining the optimal execution time of transplantation in children age of the child is of great importance. The observed improvement in the results of organ transplantation in children with increasing age and body weight should not be a reason for the delay to the delay of the physical and intellectual development is not irreversible.