Cirrhosis of the liver - is a serious chronic liver disease, in which there is diffuse (spread) of liver tissue damage in violation of its normal lobular structure as a result of liver tissue in the connective tissue and areas of regeneration of liver cells, which are structurally and functionally defective. At the same time disturbed liver function and portal hypertension occurs (increased pressure in the portal vein that carries blood to the liver). Cirrhosis of the liver takes a high place in the structure of mortality, especially the adult male population of the planet.
Exposure to toxic to the liver medication prepatatov (metatreksat, tetrachloroethane). Autoimmune hepatitis.
At a sufficiently large number of patients to identify the cause of cirrhosis of the liver is failing. Under the influence of unfavorable factors of liver cells die. Liver tissue consists of lobules. If one of the lobes of the cells die, especially if the dead cells located near the so-called bridging necrosis, a collapse of the slices (slice falling) and restore the normal structure of the lobule is no longer possible. At this point, growing connective tissue. Those liver cells, which are not killed, but they destroyed lobules, begin to proliferate, forming psevdodolki.
Structure psevdodolek broken, they are not in the center of the veins and the function of liver tissue, they are not able to perform. Connective tissue and blood vessels compress psevdodolki liver. Some of the vessels, especially veins, are squeezed to the point of overlap of their lumen and gradually closed. As a result, the pressure in the vessels of the liver is increased, decreased blood flow. Between the hepatic artery and hepatic veins are formed so-called shunts through which arterial blood is discharged into the venous system, bypassing the liver tissue.
Thus, depleted food and oxygen supply to the liver cells, leading to their demise and the emergence of new necrosis. A so-called vicious circle.
The course of cirrhosis may be:
sluggish or latent.
Identify the stages of phase compensation subcompensation or decompensation. All forms of clinically apparent cirrhosis is approximately the same. Most often the disease progresses gradually. The patient is worried about the weakness and fatigue on exertion, lack of appetite, nausea and sometimes vomiting. In the liver there is expansion inside, heaviness, aching. The patient does not tolerate alcohol and fatty foods.
In a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis occurs aggressiveness, irritability and insomnia. Often patients complain of joint pain, itchy skin, reduced vision in the twilight time of day ("night blindness"). In men over time breaks down the formation of male sex hormones, there is impotence, gynecomastia (breast enlargement in men).
In women, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, decreased libido (sex drive). Patients lose weight, especially significantly expressed in the later stages of cirrhosis and manifest cachexia (wasting). Found on the skin spider veins (telangiectasia), and redness of the hands' surface (liver palms).
The liver is enlarged, may be bumpy. Half of the patients revealed an enlarged spleen. In the later stages of cirrhosis there is swelling of limbs and ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen).
The diagnosis of cirrhosis established on the basis of laboratory studies (identified markers of hepatitis), ultrasound, scintigraphy of the liver, CT.
Treatment of liver cirrhosis.
Treatment of cirrhosis is mainly aimed at eliminating the causes of its development and the underlying disease, prevent further damage to liver cells. Appointed by the diet, gentle to the liver. In sub-and decompensated cirrhosis treated forms is determined by the nature of patient complaints. Used vitamins, lipoic acid, hepatoprotectors (Kars, silibor, Essenciale, Hofitol, SAMe, hepatitis, etc.).