Coronary heart disease - one of the most common diseases of the heart. In addition, coronary artery disease - this is one of the most common causes of mortality in Russia. Before we talk about rehabilitation for coronary heart disease, you need to know that this disease as it manifests itself and how to treat.
CHD - coronary heart disease - a condition in which there is a breach of the blood flow to the heart, namely, in the arteries of the heart, called coronary. That's why sometimes you can not hear "CHD", and "coronary heart disease."
When coronary flow is a violation of the arterial blood from the aorta to the coronary arteries due to their partial or complete blockage of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis - the most common cause of coronary heart disease. Less likely to breach the blood flow to the heart may be caused by blockage of blood clots or, more rarely, due to spasm of blood vessels.
If you violate any of blood flow in tissue, where it is oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) is anoxic metabolism, resulting in the formation lactic acid and other decomposition products. That is what is causing the pain of IBS.
Chest pain - the main symptom of coronary artery disease. It can vary in intensity and distribution, giving the left hand, shoulder to the jaw.
Manifestations of coronary heart disease may provoke physical activity. The heart has to pump a greater volume of blood, for which he himself needed more oxygen. And with narrowed coronary vessels is impossible. There is pain.
One of the complications of coronary artery disease, which can be life-threatening, is a myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction occurs when a sudden sharp violation of blood flow to the heart. The reason for this gap may be an atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus and complete occlusion of the lumen of the artery.
Myocardial infarction there is so severely impaired blood flow in a separate section of heart muscle that it simply mortify some time, if not in time to start proper treatment.
The main forms of ischemic heart disease - is angina, myocardial infarction, and the so-called myocardial infarction, which is a direct consequence of myocardial infarction.
Moreover, all these forms of CHD may occur in patients both in isolated form or in combination, including the various complications and their consequences. At the same patient may have angina, in the past, he might have suffered a heart attack, and still have the risk of new heart attacks in the future. All, of course, depends on the lifestyle, treatment, and on which was carried out cardiac rehabilitation after illness.
Complications of coronary artery disease
They are: heart failure, that is, reducing the pumping function of heart muscle irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia, fraught with the same heart failure and sometimes sudden cardiac arrest and other complications.
Heart failure - a consequence of myocardial infarction, or changes in heart muscle itself (in the form of hypertrophy). The heart pumps little blood in the body, it results in a stalemate, there is swelling of the legs and shortness of breath.
The main symptoms of coronary artery disease manifested by narrowing of the coronary artery lumen diameter by more than one-third.
The main risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction
Internationally recognized risk factors for CHD are:
Elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood
High blood pressure
Elevated levels of blood sugar
At the same time to predict accurately, in which case it may be a myocardial infarction - is impossible. For someone just nervous enough, poperezhivat. Someone is quite hardy does not respond to such factors, but a heart attack can occur suddenly out of nowhere. It is therefore important prevention of CHD.
Prevention of coronary heart disease
Knowing the major risk factors for coronary heart disease, prevention would be to prevent these factors. It is necessary to include in your diet foods low in cholesterol, limit, or better yet, quit smoking, reduce excess weight and start exercising. It is also important in the normal psychological background, so far as possible, it is important to avoid stressful situations (which in our time, of course, difficult).
For example, a scientifically proven that a vegetarian diet can reduce the risk of CHD by 24%.
Also, doctors now recommend that all people older than 45 to take aspirin for ¼ tablet. The use of aspirin for the prevention of coronary heart disease due to its thinning properties, which reduces the risk of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels.
Methods of treatment of coronary artery disease
Treatment of coronary heart disease depends on the condition of the patient, the disease course and patient preference. All treatments for coronary artery disease can be divided into medical and surgical.
To medical methods include the use of drugs that expand the lumen of narrowed coronary arteries, reducing blood cholesterol levels, improve metabolism in the heart tissue and thin the blood.
Surgical techniques aimed at restoring normal blood flow to the heart. Balloon angioplasty - with this in the narrowed coronary artery lumen catheter with a balloon inflated at the end. When inflating the balloon expands the artery and blood flow is restored.
Stenting - a method similar to balloon angioplasty, but in addition to the expanding balloon in the artery is established stent - a wire cylinder, which serves as a scaffold for the vessel and gives it back to narrow.
Coronary artery bypass grafting - a method of open-heart surgery, the surgeon determines to bypass a narrowed section of coronary artery other - "healthy" and free of plaque vessel. Usually it is a radial artery or saphenous veins of the legs.