Inflammatory diseases of the optic nerve called optic neuritis. The inflammatory process in the optic nerve can occur:
with infectious diseases of the brain and its membranes:
in demyelinating diseases of the brain, the cause of which is yet to be known.
The cause of optic neuritis may include:
acute infectious processes:
acute viral disease
acute bacterial disease
foci of chronic infection in the body:
Infection in the tissue of the optic nerve can penetrate with inflammatory diseases of the eyeball and eye socket.
For optic neuritis sometimes resulting parasitic diseases, metabolic disorders in the body. The inflammatory process in the optic nerve sheath covers and fabric of the optic nerve, usually grabbing first shell, the nerve fibers at the same time suffer from eating disorders and compression. Due to these reasons, the nerve fibers die and are replaced by connective tissue, there is atrophy of the optic nerve. The inflammatory process can capture the optic nerve at different levels.
When inflammation occurs in the nipple (ROM) of the optic nerve, it is called papillitom. If the inflammatory process involves the optic nerve between the eyeball and its cross (chiasma) to the base of the brain, a process called optic neuritis.
Papillitis, or optic neuritis is characterized by complaints of sudden decreased vision. Sometimes the vision can be reduced to such an extent that the patient distinguish only light and darkness. Initially detect narrowing of visual field (field of view - fixed visible eye field, is studied by a special instrument oculist), drop parts of the field of view.
One of the first signs may be a violation of papillita color vision. The patient has complaints of pain in the eyes, worse when you turn the eyeballs, and headaches. The fundus obnaruzhvaetsya blurred the boundaries of the optic nerve, optic nerve swelling nipple, sometimes spreads to the retina. In the optic nerve arise hemorrhage. Perhaps clouding of the vitreous close to the disk.
Optic neuritis. When inflammation of the optic nerve area between the eyeball and visual pathways cross there is a sharp decrease in visual acuity. One of the first signs is a central scotoma. If the patient complains of a spot in front of the eyes, which can not see through it. The fundus often reveals a normal pattern. Much later there is blanching of the disk, stushevannost its borders, a narrowing of blood vessels. Impaired function of the optic nerve in this case can be set at electrophysiological study, recording visual evoked potentials of the electroencephalogram.
Most often, optic neuritis occurs in demyelinating diseases of the brain mainly in multiple sclerosis. Optic neuritis can be the first sign of serious illness. To clarify the diagnosis in this case is carried out magnetic resonance imaging.
During optic neuritis may be varied. Patients with mild papillitov at time begun treatment recover quickly, the function of quickly restored. Severe neuritis leads to atrophy of the optic nerve and loss of vision in varying degrees to complete blindness.
Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the optic nerve is carried out in a hospital. Appointed by the broad-spectrum antibiotics, drugs that reduce intracranial pressure (diuretics, osmotic diuretics). Perhaps intravenous glucocorticoid hormones.
Used antihistamines, drugs improving the function of the vascular wall (Dicynone), enzymes (contrycal, gordox), antioxidants (emoksipin). To improve the nutrition of nervous tissue appointed Actovegin, meksidol, diavitol etc. In multiple sclerosis, the state of visual function depends on the underlying disease, but usually complete atrophy of the optic nerve in this disease does not happen.