Over the past 10 years, liver transplantation has become a common procedure for treatment of end-stage liver disease, the annual demand for this operation is 10-20 per 1 million population. Almost all patients admitted for liver transplantation, the condition is rated as severe or very severe, because nearly every patient in the terminal stage of chronic or acute liver failure. This condition affects almost all organs and body systems.
Disease, which can occur when the indications for liver transplantation were pooled into four main groups of pathological states:
End-stage chronic diffuse liver diseases, including the outcome of hepatitis B and C;
Metabolic disorder due to congenital abnormalities of the liver;
Acute liver failure;
Inoperable focal liver disease, including cancer.
The main contingent, which perform a liver transplant, are patients with liver cirrhosis of different origin.
By transplanting the liver have in mind placement of the donor liver at a disposal authority the patient. By this difficulty and trauma surgery can rightly be considered the most difficult surgery on the abdominal organs and require special conditions.
The most important factor determining the success of liver transplantation is the use for transplantation donor organ are functionally meaningful. This forces the surgeon to severely restrict the number of potential donors, to improve the technique of removal of organs and intentionally reduce the period of preservation. The optimal donor can be considered a relative aged 18 and younger than 60 years of age without pathology of the liver and the same blood group as the patient. This will greatly increase the chances of success of the operation.
A few hours before the operation the patient perform, required general and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, perform an electrocardiogram. For a successful transplant is extremely important experience and expertise of surgeons, availability of special equipment. The first operate on the donor, carefully take out the liver, and then transplanted to the patient. Liver transplant from a living donor usually takes at least 10 hours. Drugs used for anesthesia should not have toxic effects on the liver and kidneys.
After liver transplantation, all patients were transferred to the intensive care unit for further treatment and follow-up. Then the patient waits for a long and difficult period of reconstruction and rehabilitation.