Hypopituitarism (Simmonds syndrome, a syndrome Shiena)
Hypopituitarism syndrome is a disease characterized by low precipitation and function of the anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis. The pituitary gland or pituitary consists of two parts front and back. In the anterior pituitary hormones are six products (ACTH, prolactin, growth hormone, follitropin, and thyrotropin lyutropin). When hypopituitarism production of pituitary hormones is sharply reduced or disappears. As a result of sharply declining function of the peripheral endocrine glands, which control the work of pituitary hormones.
Hypopituitarism may be primary, when damaged or missing cells of the pituitary gormonprodutsiruyuschie, and secondary, if to Hypopituitary cause diseases of the hypothalamus or the central nervous system. Sometimes there is a lack of production of one of the pituitary hormones.
Gipopituitarnogo syndrome causes may be:
pituitary tumor and the hypothalamus or other central nervous system
diseases of the blood
inflammatory diseases of the brain
vascular disorders of the arteries supplying the pituitary and hypothalamus
traumatic brain injury
metabolic disorders by:
chronic renal and hepatic failure.
By Hypopituitary can cause abnormalities of the pituitary gland. In the postpartum period in pathological birth can happen necrosis of the anterior pituitary. At full necrosis of the anterior lobe syndrome, a condition called Simmonds, partial - Shiena syndrome. When gipopituitarnom syndrome is destroyed gormonprodutsiruyuschih cells of the anterior pituitary.
Clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism occurs when funktsioniruschih cells remains less than 10%. The infection usually develops gradually over many years.
The earliest sign of disease is usually failure of the pituitary gonadotrophic function - reducing the number of pituitary hormones regulate the function of the gonads.
If hypopituitarism originated in childhood, or has a hereditary nature, disturbed development during puberty. Puberty is delayed, formed evnuhoidnye body proportions, delayed bone growth of the skeleton.
In adults, decreased libido and potency, the secondary sex characteristics gradually disappear:
decreased body hair in the armpits and pubic
slowing the growth of beard and mustache
shrink the testicles and prostate gland
muscle tissue atrophies and is replaced by fat.
In women, decreased libido, disturbed menstrual cycle, reduced breasts, thinner tissue of sexual organs.
One of the earliest signs of hypopituitarism - a violation of smell.
Production of growth hormone deficiency in children is manifested growth retardation. In adults, growth hormone deficiency can be manifested muscle weakness, symptoms of the heart, poor exercise tolerance.
Reduced production tirotropnogo hormone leads to a childhood disease to thyroid function and delayed mental and physical development. In adults, there gipotiroz. Patients usually proper nutrition, weight loss rarely happens. There are complaints of weakness. They have low blood pressure, a rare heart rhythm, often have gastro-intestinal disorders.
When pituitary tumors arise from the complaints of the central nervous system: headache, visual disturbances. Found narrowing of visual fields and changes in the fundus.
A very rare syndrome of acute hypopituitarism, when there is hemorrhage in the pituitary gland and arise:
sudden drop of
drop in blood pressure
loss of consciousness.
Treatment of hypopituitarism.
Treatment of hypopituitarism syndrome is carried out taking into account the disease, which led to the failure of pituitary function.
When tumors are usually treated promptly or radiation.
In order to correct insufficiency pituitary hormones are appointed by various of drugs, taking into account the prevalence of deficiency of certain hormones: In case of insufficiency of adrenocorticotropic hormone prescribed synthetic hormones of the adrenal cortex - glucocorticoids:
In men with a decrease in testicular function assigned to the male sex hormones:
In male adolescents at puberty appointed chorionic gonadotropin.
Women assigned to cyclic hormone replacement therapy preparations of estrogen and progesterone.
In case of insufficiency of thyroid function performed thyroid hormone treatment. Sometimes you need in prescribing human growth hormone.
With timely detection of disease and initial treatment, patients may live a normal life and maintain capacity to work for a long time.