The term "lipids" means fats are dissolved in the blood. Lipids play an important role in our body. They are part of many hormones, bioactive substances. However, an excess of lipids in the body increases the risk of disease. Hypercholesterolemia - term for elevated levels of blood lipids. In the general meaning of the term refer to many types of hyperlipidemia increase body fat. But more often this term means an increased level of blood cholesterol and triglycerides, which are lipids.
High levels of lipids in the blood leads to the development of such common diseases today, such as atherosclerosis. At the same time on a smooth and flat surface of the arteries called atherosclerotic delayed (or atheromatous) plaques. Plaques are composed of cholesterol, calcium and fibrous tissue. Gradually increasing in size and number, they narrow the lumen of the arteries and disrupt blood flow, which is manifested in the form of numerous diseases of the cardiovascular system: heart disease, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis of lower extremities, aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease, mesenteric ischemia, cerebrovascular circulation (stroke) and many others.
The risk of atherosclerosis increases with the influence of certain factors:
Elevated levels of blood cholesterol
High blood pressure
Age older than 60 years
The symptoms of hyperlipidemia
By itself, hyperlipidemia does not appear. To diagnose it is through biochemical analysis of blood. However, under appropriate conditions, hyperlipidemia leads to the development of atherosclerosis, which in turn has various manifestations, depending on the localization of atherosclerotic plaques.
The causes of hyperlipidemia
Most of hyperlipidemia is a consequence of lifestyle, diet or habitual taking the drug. To lifestyle factors include obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. The occurrence of hyperlipidemia affected by the presence of diabetes, kidney disease, pregnancy and decreased thyroid function. Hyperlipidemia may also be a hereditary disease. In this situation the patient may have normal weight, suffered as hyperlipidemia and their relatives. The risk of hyperlipidemia increases with age in men after 45 years, and women - after 55 years. If your close relative is sick, heart disease, a father or brother under the age of 55 years or mother or sister, younger than 65 years, and you have a high risk of heart disease.
Methods of diagnosis of hyperlipidemia
Due to the fact that hyperlipidemia has no specific symptoms, diagnosis is based on its analysis of blood. Depending on the results of biochemical blood analysis, the level of lipid fractions of blood, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes, medication or another treatment. In addition, the doctor will determine whether you have atherosclerosis or the risk of its development. The higher your risk of heart disease, the intensity of the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Using biochemical analysis of blood (which is held on an empty stomach!) Identified components of lipids - the so-called faction. This LDL - low-density lipoprotein ("bad" cholesterol), HDL - high-density lipoprotein ("good" cholesterol), total cholesterol and triglycerides. To have a low risk of atherosclerosis and its manifestations, it is necessary that the level of lipids were as follows:
Some scientists believe that it is preferable to have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels even lower than indicated above.
Treatment of hyperlipidemia
Treatment of hyperlipidemia depends on lipid levels who are at risk of developing heart disease and general health.
The main goal of treatment of hyperlipidemia is to reduce "bad cholesterol" - LDL. At the beginning of the treatment, your doctor may advise to change their way of life: diet: Avoid fatty foods of exercise normalization of high blood pressure no smoking
If these actions do not help to lower LDL cholesterol in the blood, or the doctor thinks the patient has a high risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease, the question arises about the need for medical treatment. Most often, candidates for drug treatment are men older than 35 and women at menopause.
Drugs that reduce blood lipid levels:
Statins - their action due to the fact that they prevent the formation of cholesterol in the liver
drugs bind bile acids Fibrates Niacin (Vitamin B5) What is the prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis?
Usually, doctors recommend for beginning to change lifestyle and regular diet. Implementation of these measures, many patients can help reduce total cholesterol by 10-20%. However, most often changing lifestyle and diet can reduce total cholesterol by 2-6%.
The most significant moment of change in lifestyle is diet. Doctors recommend the following activities:
reduced intake of saturated fat to 7%
reduction in total fat intake to 25-35%
restriction of cholesterol from food to 200 mg per day
daily consumption of foods rich in fiber, an average of 20 - 30 g. Dietary fiber found in foods such as oats, peas, beans and many fruits and vegetables Daily intake of foods containing stanol and sterol - nuts, vegetable oils, corn, rice and other
Other products, consumption of which helps to regulate blood cholesterol levels - are certain kinds of fish: salmon, salmon, mackerel, sardines. The flesh of these fish contained a substance like omega-3 fatty acids. These acids help to reduce triglycerides in the blood. Soybeans and many meat substitutes based on soy also reduced blood levels of low density lipoprotein.
Psilium, or psyllium seed flea, also have a positive effect on blood lipids. The effect of this dietary supplement due to the fact that psilium normalizes intestinal motility, its flora, binds and removes fat.
Excess weight also increases blood levels of low density lipoproteins and decreased high-density lipoprotein. Therefore, one of the factors of treatment of hyperlipidemia is reducing excess weight.
The following medical factor - it's exercise. It is recommended daily to pay 20 to 30 minutes gymnastics, aerobics or running. It is imperative to start exercises to consult a doctor about their form and duration.
Smoking is also one of the main factors of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, it is recommended to immediately quit smoking, once you have identified hyperlipidaemia.
All these events contribute to the normalization of blood lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.