Graves' Disease or Graves' disease, Graves' disease is a disease that is characterized by increased thyroid function, accompanied by an increase in its size, due to autoimmune processes in the body. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system defect, where the immune system in the human body produces substances damaging its own cells. In the case of diffuse toxic goiter lifotsity produce abnormal protein that stimulates the thyroid gland. This protein is called "long-acting thyroid stimulator."
For reasons that can cause hyperthyroidism include:
long-term chronic foci of infection in the body.
Especially often contribute to the emergence of diffuse toxic goiter chronic angina. Increased risk of Graves' disease with other autoimmune processes (diabetes, Addison's disease, gipoparatiroz, vitiligo).
Contribute to the emergence of toxic goiter and various viral infections. Possible occurrence of the disease after the introduction to a survey of radioactive iodine. The frequency of diffuse toxic goiter is quite high: one of the ill 100. Diseases of the subject people of all ages, but most women suffer from the young and middle age.
In the early stages of disease can occur unnoticed. In addition, the clinical manifestations of Graves' disease are so varied that it may hinder the correct diagnosis. At the beginning of the disease the patient may complain of sleep disturbances, mood changes, increased sweating, seizures, palpitations, tremors in the fingers. More specific evidence is weight loss, with normal appetite and poor tolerance of heat. The patient was hot even in cold weather.
Over time, the tremor becomes more pronounced, could shake the entire body. Patients fussy, their skin is moist. There is a dark color of the skin throughout the body, most pronounced in the century. Sometimes there is a seal skin in the legs and feet in a dense swelling. The thyroid gland grows, it becomes noticeable to the eye. When probing is usually dense and painless.
Specific symptom for Graves' disease are changes in the eye. His eyes sparkle, they are wide open (symptom dalrymple), flashing rare. When looking down with eyes open there is a white stripe above the pupil, although the rate of the eyelid is usually omitted after the eyeball. The eyeball is enlarged and protruding. The eyelids may be swollen. Because eating disorders can eyeball join different types of infections and conjunctivitis occur (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye). Eating disorders occur eyeball, there is optic neuritis. Ultimately, all these changes can lead to blindness.
One of the more severe manifestations of Graves' disease are disorders of the cardiovascular system. The patient was concerned about heart palpitations, persisting even during sleep, lead to abnormalities in heart rhythm. Many older patients having angina. Increased blood pressure. Life-threatening outcome may be heart failure.
Under the influence of increased thyroid function increased motility of the gastrointestinal tract, nausea, sometimes vomiting, and diarrhea. Excess thyroid hormone causes toxic effects on the liver and can develop fatty liver. The defeat of the thyroid hormones, central nervous system characterized by the occurrence of headaches, insomnia, dizziness, anxiety. Excess thyroid function usually leads to disruption of other endocrine organs. Disrupted gonads. In women, it may be accompanied by a violation of menstrual dysfunction, infertility. In men, reduced potency. Reduced production of hormones by the adrenal cortex. Violated the exchange of glucose and increased risk of diabetes.
The stream there are three degrees of goitre:
In mild form of the patient's condition is satisfactory. The heart rate does not exceed 100 beats per minute. The weight is reduced by no more than 10%.
The average degree of diffuse toxic goiter is characterized by a heart rate above 100 per minute, high blood pressure, weight loss of up to 20% of the original.
In severe the patient's weight is reduced by more than 20%, heart rate 120 per minute, there are signs of other organs and systems.
The diagnosis of Graves' disease is on the basis of clinical presentation, probing thyroid ultrasound study of thyroid hormones in the blood.
Treatment of diffuse toxic goiter. The main treatment for Graves' disease with medication. Prescribers, suppress thyroid function - tirostatiki (tiamazol, carbimazole, propitsil). At the beginning of treatment to high dose, which is then reduced. Treatment is carried out under the control of thyroid hormone in the blood and continues until the complete elimination of symptoms of diffuse toxic goiter but not less than 12 months. In addition, use of beta-blockers, levothyroxine, immunocorrectors glucocorticoids.
In the absence of the positive effect of medication surgical treatment of diffuse toxic goiter. Of the thyroid gland is removed. However, surgery does not eliminate the cause of the disease. Another method of treatment after failure of drug therapy can be treated with radioactive iodine. It is carried out only for the older group of patients nedetorodnogo age. The method of treatment is based on damage to radioactive iodine thyroid cells, thus achieving a reduction of its function.