Diverticula of the esophagus - a bulge in the wall of the esophagus as a blind sac or tube communicating with the lumen of the esophagus. This protrusion may interfere with swallowing function and promotion of food in the esophagus. In the oral protrusion can be trapped and accumulate food, inflammatory processes occur.
Distinguish true and false diverticula of the esophagus.
A true diverticulum - a protrusion of the walls of which are formed by all segments of the esophageal wall - mucous, muscular and outer shell.
False diverticula - a protrusion of the mucosa through a defect in the muscular layer of the esophageal wall. The wall of the diverticulum consists of mucosa and the outer casing.
There are congenital and acquired diverticula. On the mechanism of acquired diverticula are:
Pulsionnye diverticula usually develop with increasing pressure in the esophagus as a result of a violation of its motility, stenosis of the lower esophagus. The wall of the esophagus in this case sticks out in a weaker position.
Traction diverticula are formed by the seam between the wall of the esophagus and surrounding organs. Usually fusion occurs when the inflammation in the lymph nodes of roots of the lungs, trachea. In this body, which is soldered part of the esophagus pulls her over, the wall of the esophagus is stretched, formed protrusion - diverticulum.
The mechanism of development of the diverticulum can be mixed, as a result of these two reasons, then there tractional-pulsionnye diverticula of the esophagus.
Diverticulum may exist in any part of the esophagus. Diverticula occur at the back of the throat and esophagus. These diverticula called pharyngeal pockets or diverticula tseykerovskimi.
Manifest violation of the diverticulum Tseykera swallowing and regurgitation (reflux of food from the esophagus into the oral cavity). There may be a sore throat, feeling a lump in my throat. The diagnosis of diverticular Tseykera ustanalivayut X-ray examination. Endoscopy may be hazardous to the patient. Necessary to consult an otolaryngologist.
Treatment of the diverticulum prompt. Diverticulum resected (removed), in the future, if necessary, carried plastic esophagus. The most frequently encountered diverticula in the middle part of the esophagus. It is believed that they account for 90% of all esophageal diverticula. In this case, especially if the size of diverticulum is less than 2 cm, and the patient for a long time may not be a complaint. If there is inflammation in the diverticulum - diverticulitis, the patient complains of pain in the sternum, extending to the back under the shoulder blade. There is a violation of swallowing, regurgitation. Increased body temperature. Less common are diverticula of the lower esophagus, epiphrenic and subdiaphragmatic.
Diverticula may be single or multiple. Complications of diverticula of the esophagus can become their abscess, perforation, narrowing of the esophagus, malignancy. Sometimes there is bleeding from diverticula. Diverticulum caused by swallowing and reflux of food into the oral cavity and the trachea, leading to the development of pneumonia, lung abscess, pleurisy. Sometimes, diverticula can cause angina and heart rhythm disturbances.
Treatment of esophageal diverticula.
First, conservative measures are taken: assigned diet, the use of high-grade, crushed, unheated, non-irritating wall of the esophagus for food. Meal in a comfortable position, without hurrying. In order to prevent or eliminate the inflammation in the diverticulum is sometimes carried out irrigation and drainage of the esophagus with warm water or a weak antiseptic solution. Diverticula of large size are subject to removal. An experienced doctor can remove the diverticulum with endoscopy.