Deterioration of olfaction (hyposphresia) or its absence (anosmia) may be essential, and respiratory, congenital or acquired. Rarely increased sense of smell (hyperospheresia) and its distortion (kokasmiya). Respiratory disturbance of smell due to pathological processes in the nasal cavity, in which the access of inhaled air containing odorous substances in the olfactory cleft is difficult (if this occurs hyposphresia) or completely stopped (which causes anosmia).
In childhood and adult respiratory hypo-and anosmia occur due to swollen mucous membrane of the nasal turbinate, choanal atresia, a congenital anomaly of the nose, nasal foreign bodies, deviated septum, or other traumatic nature of the fusion (adhesions) in the nasal cavity, and polyposis tumors of the nose, etc. Virtually any mechanical disturbance of penetration of air into the olfactory cleft a cause of disturbances of smell.
Essential anosmia occurs in lesions of the olfactory receptor or the olfactory nerve.
Deep atrophy of the nasal mucosa, which occurs in particular at Ozen (smelly runny nose), followed by the beginning of essential hyposphresia and then hyposphresia in connection with the defeat of the olfactory receptor atrophic process.
Relatively common cause of olfactory disorders are essential infectious diseases: viral (flu), childish infektsii.V rare cases of tuberculous or syphilitic localization process in the nose may occur Essential anosmia. Poisoning by some poisons, and in some cases, medications are also sometimes cause olfactory dysfunction.
One of the symptoms of cancer processes in the upper part of the nose and in the course of intracranial olfactory tract is essential loss of smell. Irreversible damage to the olfactory sensitivity of the olfactory area causes injury or damage to the nasal pathways and the center of the olfactory organ.
Diagnosis of disorders of smell is based on the study of smell odoriferous substances without dosing, and more precisely by using olfactometer. Estimated rinoskopicheskaya picture while carefully examined the olfactory region, its configuration and width. In the respiratory form of smell disorders treatment, usually surgery to restore nasal breathing and ensure the passage of air through the olfactory cleft in the olfactory area of the nose. More often produce polipotomiyu nose, submucous resection of nasal septum, partial turbinotomy etc.
Treatment of disorders of smell with essential forms should be sent to fight the causal factor. When hyperospheresia kokasmii and shown on the possibility of eliminating the causal factors (neurasthenia, dystonia, hysteria, a disease of the central nervous system, pregnancy)