Diphtheria is an infection that occurs with a massive intoxication. Diphtheria toxin the bacteria has the property to a greater degree of hitting the nerve cells. Therefore, the clinical manifestations of diphtheria, along with the well-known reddening and swelling of the throat, tonsils, include damage to the nerves of the body.
There are early and late neurological complications of diphtheria.
Early complications occur in the first days of disease and eye disorders are characterized by: paresis or paralysis of eye muscles, and therefore violated the synchronous movement of the eyeballs, or, paralysis of the muscles responsible for the sharpening on the subjects. Early manifestations of the same include paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx, larynx or diaphragm, heart disorders. These complications may even be the cause of death from respiratory failure or cardiac performance. Rate of development and severity of early complications depend on the dose of neurotoxin, which developed a bacteria in the body.
Late neurological complications occur in the week 4-10-1 disease.
They appear neuromuscular disorders: there is growing and the weakness in the limbs, tendon reflexes fall. Often the occurrence of unpleasant sensations in the skin - "needles", tingling, numbness, - especially in the hands and feet. May be violated, and so-called deep sensitivity: a man walking a lot of bad experiences of his own body and position it in space, can not immediately understand the consistency and temperature of objects which picks up. In connection with these disorders is disturbed gait of the patient - it is unstable due to the fact that the patient feels as bad as the surface under their feet. As the disease progresses, complications may be to late to join swallowing, paresis of the facial muscles and muscles of the vocal cords, causing loss of voice. Increases muscle atrophy, which results in weakness and fatigue, reducing their volume, may cause muscle pain.
Nerve complications of diphtheria, in the event that they are formed, not specific - general detoxification of the body (dropper with cleaning solution) for a more rapid elimination of toxins from the nervous tissue. However, at the beginning of the disease can prevent the development of nerve complications by introducing a special diphtheria toxoid that neutralizes the toxin. The action of toxoid on an already formed the complications are usually ineffective. If he had not been introduced before, the good care and detoxification are the only methods of treatment in these cases diphtheria complications may disappear completely in 2-4 months.