Hypertension is often called the "silent" killer. The killer - because it leads to myocardial infarction and stroke, cardiac, and renal failure. A quiet - because, often, a person suffering from hypertension, can not even imagine having this in their pathology. The patient may be relatively high numbers of blood pressure, but no outward signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, even in the absence of any symptoms in the body is going through some changes for the heart, brain and kidneys.
It is therefore important to regularly measure their blood pressure, especially in those cases, if you have ever noted increased blood pressure to the upper limit or above it. The same applies to the cases, if your family is sick, suffering from this disease. Since hypertension is the cause and heart disease, except for the measurement of blood pressure should be checked regularly, and the heart.
The three main methods of diagnosis, which can detect the presence of hypertension in humans, it is:
Measurement of blood pressure.
Measurement of blood pressure is carried out using a special device - the tonometer, which is a combination of phonendoscope sphygmomanometer. On the method of measuring blood pressure, we have already pointed out. It is worth noting that in a family where there is a patient with hypertension should always have an apparatus for measuring blood pressure, as well as anyone from their home could use it. However, even the patient can independently measure his blood pressure. In addition, currently available on the market and the special electronic devices that measure blood pressure, heart rate and blood pressure parameters allow enter into memory.
We note again that the normal limits of blood pressure in adults - 120-140/80-90 mmHg Although some people may experience low blood pressure and, thus, they feel completely normal, and the seemingly "normal" numbers 120/80 for them can mean an increase in blood pressure. In most cases, the limits of blood pressure from 120 to 140 mmHg considered at present as "pregipertenziya."
Blood pressure can vary in their rates, depending on age, heart condition, emotional status, physical activity and concomitant medications that person takes. Therefore, if one day you have increased blood pressure was recorded, it does not mean that you have hypertension. Therefore it is necessary to measure the Hell in a different time, at least, with an interval of 5 minutes.
Diagnosis of hypertension is also in a patient survey of physician. The physician finds the patient what disease he had previously suffered or is suffering right now. The estimation of risk factors (smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus), as well as the so-called ancestral history, that is, suffered a hypertensive parents, grandfather, grandmother patient and other close relatives.
Physical examination includes the patient's first examination of the heart with the stethoscope. This method allows to detect the presence of noise in the heart, changes in the characteristic tones (increase or, conversely, attenuation), as well as the appearance of atypical sounds. These data, first of all, talk about the changes taking place in the heart tissue due to high blood pressure, as well as the presence of defects.
Electrocardiogram (EKG) - a method that allows to register at a special ribbon change in the electrical potentials of the heart over time. It is an indispensable diagnostic method, especially the various cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, the ECG to determine the so-called hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall, which is characteristic of hypertension.
In addition to these diagnostic methods are also used other methods, such as echo-cardiography (ultrasound of the heart), which allows to determine the presence of defects in the structure of the heart, changes in the thickness of its walls, and condition of the valves.
Arteriography, including aortography - a radiographic method for investigating the state of the arterial wall and lumen. This method allows to detect the presence of atheromatous plaques in the wall of the coronary arteries (coronary angiography), the presence of coarctation of the aorta (congenital narrowing of the aorta at a certain location), etc.
Doppler - Ultrasound is a method of diagnosing blood flow in vessels, as in the arteries and in veins. When hypertension is primarily interested in the medical condition of the carotid arteries and cerebral arteries. To do this, it is widely used ultrasound, since it is completely safe to use and is not characterized by complications.
Biochemical analysis krovitakzhe used in the diagnosis of hypertension. First of all, it turns out cholesterol and HDL, low and very low density, since they are an indicator of propensity to atherosclerosis. In addition, determine the level of blood sugar.
In the diagnosis of hypertension is also used by the study of the kidneys, which used methods such as urinalysis, blood chemistry (at the level of creatinine and urea), and ultrasound of the kidneys and blood vessels.
Thyroid ultrasound and blood tests for thyroid hormones zhelezy.Eti research methods to help identify the role of the thyroid gland in causing high blood pressure.